The Broad Array of Moral Concepts, revised Part 1

“And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father), full of grace and truth.”                                               (Jn. 1:14)

            If the Bible and Christians contend that Jesus Christ is the blemish-free, Passover Lamb of God sacrifice for mankind’s sins, that He was perfect and without sin during His life and ministry on earth, by what or by whose standard do we judge the existence of this alleged perfect moral character in any person?

            How would we determine that the life of Jesus was at the outer edge of moral perfection, at the peak and the pinnacle of absolute goodness and virtue?

            How would we know that no additional room or space remained at the highest top-most point of the vertical, graduated spectrum-line of virtue and morality for further improvement?

            What would explain the existence of the diverse categories of moral criteria defining virtue, of the numerous moral concepts broken down into individual words as abstract thoughts accessible to human contemplation, that would enable and support a valid determination of the moral credentials of Jesus Christ?

            And finally, where would our highly-advanced capacity to comprehend, to divide, separate-out, and parse these varied conceptual virtues and vices, consisting of finely differentiated realities that are true-to-life, come from? 

            Where would this uniquely human capacity originate from, seeing that it does not exist anywhere else in the animal world and therefore cannot plausibly be attributed to the common descent, materialistic explanation for its origin extending seamlessly from animal instinct to human intellect?

            In short, this current planet earth is the perfect environment to conduct individual research explorations into the knowledge of good and evil, using the lens of a fallen moral nature that is redeemed by Jesus Christ on the cross at Calvary.

            The broad array of moral concepts functionally operative within human relationships is the intellectually thought-filled counterpart to the biodiversity and ecological balance we find in the natural world that enables animal instinct to operate.

            The brilliant invention of redemptive salvation by grace through faith in Christ is the means by which believers can with impunity and without risk to our eternal salvation, enter into journeys of faith by picking-up our own cross to follow Jesus Christ into adventures of challenge beyond our imagination…designed to illuminate the subtleties of the knowledge of good and evil for our eternal benefit.

            The entirely counterintuitive insight coming from modern science that adds a new and unexpected understanding of the biblical interpretation of salvation by grace through faith in Christ, is that the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross was not just a way to provide forgiveness for sin and to restore our relationship with God, but also to open-up a living way into exploring the knowledge of good and evil through the research vehicle of an imperfect yet redeemed, fallen moral nature (Rom. 7:15-8:4; 2 Cor. 4:7).

            If we look at the detailed, biblical narrative stories of faith from Abraham through Paul, we see not only personal relationships created between people and God, and mission-plans often having enormous benefits to other people, but we also see life-scripts that are research programs into the knowledge of good and evil that are purpose-filled at the pinnacle of rational thought and reasoning.

            There is infinitely more to God’s plan of salvation than just reconciliation and addressing the guilt of our mistakes, as important as that is.

            Redemptive salvation by grace through faith points directly to Genesis 3:4-5.

4 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die:

5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

            This is a classic example of a half-truth.

            The only way that I can acquire a genuine knowledge of good and evil is through a guided research program while inhabiting the four-wheel drive vehicle of my fallen yet redeemed earthen vessel (2 Cor. 4:7), my imperfect moral nature being the perfect lens through which to understand the subtleties of the broad array of moral concepts.

            It took a perfect person Jesus Christ to take my deserved place on the cross to satisfy perfect justice, yet one profound outcome of this event provided divine impunity for me to enter into a research program into the knowledge of good and evil in which it is a certainty that I will make mistakes that become lessons-learned rather than condemning sins (Mt. 5:6).

            This is one reason why God did not show-up in the Garden of Eden to dispute the character assassination put forward by the spiritual apparition of Satan in the holographic form of a beautiful talking serpent, because it is difficult to debate with a liar.

            The galactic irony here is that it is modern science that illuminates this component of a research program into the knowledge of good and evil contained within redemptive salvation by grace through faith in Christ.

            The other profound take-away here is that science will disappear as we now know it, the universe being temporal (Mk. 13:31; 2 Pet. 3:10).

            But a genuine knowledge of good and evil acquired through the first-hand experience of living within a God-composed journey of faith life-script lasts an eternity.

            I think it takes a grasp of what is involved in a modern science research program to see the comparative quality of God-composed journeys of faith life-scripts in which God displaces our ways and thoughts with His higher ways and thoughts (Isa. 55:8-9), like a PhD professor guiding a graduate student through their thesis research program (Jn. 16:13).

            The God of the Bible is writing research programs and offering research grants in the form of redemptive salvation by grace through faith in Christ, so that believers can obtain a genuine knowledge of good and evil through the first-hand field research of personal experience, our mistakes and shortcomings factored-in as part of the lessons-learned protocol.

            The brilliance of this is that it partly validates from an unexpected direction the claim by Jesus that He is the way, the truth, and the life to the exclusion of all other gods, religions, and philosophies. 

            Jesus said “no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.” (Jn. 14:6).

            Only one God can be God.

            Only our Creator God can compose journeys of faith that match our unique talents and abilities, replacing our ways with His higher ways, to craft four-wheel drive research vehicles having the lens of a fallen yet redeemed moral character through which to comprehend the subtle nuances of the knowledge of good and evil.

            Only the one real God is capable of crafting a program that identifies one of the fundamental purposes underlying the creation of the universe, inventing the concept of redemptive salvation by grace through faith in the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, which allows me to venture-out into a risk-filled journey of faith, with the understanding that I am certain to make many honest and unintentional mistakes (Mt.5:6).

God-composed Journey of Faith Life-scripts are Too Deep for a Naturalistic Explanation for their Origin

            The recent modern recognition in philosophy is that the human mind when reduced down to only a materialistic “brain” alone, made up of circuits and neurons, devolves into nonsensical relativism.

            The radical reduction into materialism undermines confidence in the reliability of all human thought, and thereby destroys rationality, scientific investigation, and even worldview philosophies such as atheism itself.

            Yet by simply asking the question and examining the evidence, this in and of itself declares at the outset that Jesus Christ the person we are investigating is in fact within the zone of moral perfection and sinless virtue by reason of the question being seriously entertained at all. 

            We would not even open such an investigation into the life of any other exceptional person past or present, because we already correctly acknowledge that only one person in all of history has made a credible, serious claim to have lived a perfect life, and that one person is Jesus Christ.   

            No sane person in all of recorded history has made a viable and well-substantiated claim to embody and demonstrate the moral attributes of brilliant pure light, absolute goodness, and perfect virtue, of being, speaking, and acting like a Deity.

            Jesus Christ as Messiah is proactively anticipated for centuries in the biblical Old Testament messianic prophecies fulfilled in the life, teaching, and ministry of Jesus Christ recorded in the New Testament gospels.

            This raises the probing apologetics question into the divine origin of the composition of the Bible, Old Testament Judaism, and New Testament Christianity, of how in the first-place we would “come by” the capacity to accurately judge whether the life and ministry of Jesus Christ exhausts the extent of the possible outer-limits of moral perfection.

            How would we determine that our current tool-kit of known virtuous characteristics, of well-defined moral attributes, is absolutely exhaustive, adequate, and complete enough for the in-depth moral reasoning needed to evaluate the life of Jesus Christ? 

            How would we know whether there are not some additional, outstanding moral characteristics that we are unaware of, in this current earthly context, above and beyond those demonstrated and exemplified in the life and ministry of Jesus Christ that would raise the bar higher?

            How would we know there are not some missing moral attributes in our reality that might call into question the impeccable qualifications of Jesus to be the blemish-free and sinless atoning sacrifice for our sins?

            The point here is not whether God has some additional, divine characteristics applicable in heaven that would not concern us presently, that are not relevant here on earth, but whether or not Jesus the Son of God in a human body (Isa. 7:14, 9:6-7) exhausts the limits of moral perfection as the God/man in order to qualify as the Passover Lamb of God, one-time atoning sacrifice for sin.

            The question is how this full and varied palette of moral concepts had an origin and came into existence within the reality of human life, to be able to make this assessment.

            The important point in this discussion is the fantastic notion that we would have the moral reasoning tools in terms of human mental capacity, but also in the complementary existence of the broad array of abstract moral concepts defined through the language of discrete and distinctive words, to be able to make a valid decision for or against salvation faith in Jesus Christ at this highly advanced level.

From Pondering Our Creation: Christian Essays on Science and Faith.

The Giant Asian Hornet, revised Part 4

Scientists Speaking Outside of Their Specialty are Laymen

            Some scientists have been telling us for decades that God is dead, and that the only reliable route to obtain truth is by the empirical evidences acquired through hard, bench-top science.

            Some scientists have been saying for decades that the clear evidence of design that we see in the natural world is not real, but is an illusion.

            The term-of-art popularly used by scientific materialists here is to say that the appearance of design in nature is an artifact…an artificially produced appearance created through human imagination.

            I can look through an electron microscope and see the nanotechnology of the molecular machinery at work inside a living cell, and conclude that the organized complexity I see occurring in action before my eyes is design-produced.

            I am not sure our modern culture has recognized clearly how potentially dangerous viewpoint bias is if carried to an extreme.

            The anti-god, materialistic worldview of Darwinism is on the brink of destroying the credibility of all human analytical ability because Darwinism exposes our susceptibility to the intimidating force of imposed group-think consensus that can even exist in science.         

            Confidence in the reliability of the reasoning capacity of the human mind/brain to arrive at genuine truth in science and in life connects directly to a non-material Mind/Being.

            From the Christian viewpoint, the God of the Bible created human beings with the capacity to enter into highly specified and detailed life-scripts as patterned for us in the biblical narrative stories of faith from Abraham through Paul, based upon a dependable and reliable confidence in our innate intellectual and moral reasoning ability.

            Atheism extended to its logical end-point reduces the human mind/brain to a mere material entity produced through random and undirected processes, having no firm basis to rely upon its reasoning capacity.  

            One contention of this book is that modern scientific investigation was always going to arrive at a point in time when it reached the inescapable recognition of the need for a Designing Intelligent Agent.

            The organized complexity of the information content now reveals scientifically an architectural and engineering Artisan/God of incomparable precision at the highest standards of craftsmanship.

            This Artisan has complete mastery of the database of information to create everything material and non-material in existence in the universe, because He Himself created all of this information.

            Because the natural world was always this complex,starting at the Big Bang creation of the universe 13.7-billion years ago and the formation of our planet earth 4.5-billion years ago, this paradigm-changing epiphany was waiting all this time for human scientific discovery to catch-up. 

            The functional coherence of specified complexity now points to intelligent design as the only remaining plausible option, in contradiction to the reasonableness of scientific materialism thrust forward by Darwinian evolution in 1859 based upon the database of knowledge understood at that time. 

            One point that is easily overlooked in the evolution versus creation debate, is that by making the natural world orderly and intelligible, and by having human beings with the capacity to do science, God is taking the risk that we might discover that He was sloppy, slip-shod, and incompetent as an architect and engineer.

            A God who was not completely confident about the quality of His workmanship credentials, would never upon-up the first sentence in the Bible by saying: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth,” knowing full-well that a beginning point in time for the creation of the universe would not be validated by science, until at the relatively late point in time in 1929 in the discovery of an expanding universe.   

            In my career in building construction, I learned early the hard-way in the customer service phase of new housing construction as a jobsite superintendent, that if a particular condominium unit or house was not ready to be shown to the homebuyer during the formal walkthrough prior to occupancy, that the best approach was to ask the sales staff to reschedule the walkthrough a few days later.

            This gave myself and the customer service prep-crew time to fine-tune the unit, so that the walkthrough would produce from zero to two or three minor repairs at most, creating satisfied new homebuyers and general good-will throughout the remaining warranty period.

            There was no point in prematurely conducting the walkthrough with a unit that was not ready, producing two or three pages of needed repairs identified by the disappointed and dissatisfied new homebuyer.

            There is no reason in a purely matter and energy universe that the natural world would be orderly and intelligible to human beings having the capacity to do science.

            The God of the Bible has in essence invited us to do a walkthrough through the human scientific enterprise.

            One of the key observations coming from modern science today is that everywhere we look, as science digs deeper and deeper into the causations behind the phenomena in the natural world, the specified complexity exhibited in nature wins the awe and admiration of atheist and theist alike.

Scientific Information is Easily Accessible Today

            In doing the research for this book, I sense that the general populace in countries like the United States are two or three decades behind where science today actually is.

            I sense that the general populace is still somewhere back in the 1990’s, accepting the assertion by Carl Sagan promoting the idea of the Principle of Mediocrity that the earth is an insignificant, pale blue dot lost in a vast universe, and the assertion by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen J. Gould that science and God cannot overlap, but belong in entirely different, competing categories of reality.

            A person needs to invest only about two hours to get caught-up with where science is today, in some of the key critical areas that influence our worldview philosophy for life.

            This can easily be achieved for those people who have access to the Internet (via smart phone, computer, or other electronic device), and are willing to watch in succession, with coffee or tea breaks in-between, the presentations by Edward Murphy discussing the standard theory of the origin of the elements of the Periodic Table[1], then Gunter Bechly describing the discontinuities in the fossil record[2], and Stephen C. Meyer explaining the quantum mechanics at the Big Bang[3], to see that the evidences for random and undirected processes still being put-forward by the philosophy of scientific materialism, are no longer reasonably plausible.

            But for a real jolt forward by several decades to reach the current science in the field of molecular biochemistry (what it takes to create life), watch Scientists Are Clueless on the Origin of Life, Lecture @ Andrews University (Sept. 11, 2020) featuring Dr. James Tour on YouTube.

Prior Fitness Coordinates Too Many Complex Systems of Information that are Independent from Each Other

               One of the themes of this book is that the materialistic explanations using random and undirected processes to achieve function and fit, through the method of gradual, incremental, small-step, progressive development, no longer makes sense.

            The information content underlying the natural world is too complex to support materialism.

            When we factor-in the concept of the prior fitness of the biodiversity and environmental ecosystems required to be in-place to support each new introduction of major innovations in the living and non-living world,[4] the worldview of naturalistic materialism can no longer be considered a viable candidate to explain the ultimate reality of existence.

            When I watch on the Internet the 2014 presentation by Aoife McLysaght[5] in defense of modern Darwinian evolution, I run into the same brick-wall I encountered reading Jerry A. Coyne’s book.

            About five minutes into this excellent presentation, I sense that Dr. McLysaght is unwittingly making a cumulative case argument for intelligent agency rather than historical Darwinian evolution, so brilliantly marvelous is the scope and breadth of the natural world she is describing.

            To a modern, discriminating audience using critical-thinking, merely exchanging the phrase “intelligent designing agency” with the substitute word “evolution” is a semantics slight-of-hand card-trick that is apparently undetectable to scientific materialists.

            If intelligent agency is disallowed according to the philosophical worldview of naturalistic materialism, then the only word capable of expressing the secular version of agency is evolution.

            But merely saying something, does not make it so.

            The classic statement made in 1988 by Francis Crick to scientists that they must “constantly keep in mind that what they see was not designed, but rather evolved,”[6] in just a few short years has now become obsolete.

            Information about the natural world has exponentially exploded that fast.

            Whenever phenomena in nature are described thoroughly using their full informational content discovered through science, the more and more obvious becomes the design element requiring agency, that transcends above and pushes out a purely materialistic explanation through evolution.

            How do you get multi-cellular green algae floating on top of the ancient oceans, having whatever small number of different cell-types biologists and paleontologists agree upon today, to make the leap from there to branch-off into becoming the next iteration of being a Precambrian jellyfish floating near the surface of the ancient oceans, considered by some scientists today to possess around 10 to 12 different cell-types[7] to support their architectural body-plans?  

            How do you get from there to the introduction of the new and different architectural body-plans and lifestyle habits of the creatures of the Cambrian Explosion, exhibiting the dynamic movement of predator/prey relationships within more complex biodiversity and ecosystems, that appear suddenly in the geological record around 535-million years ago?

            These new and novel creatures are estimated to have between 30-40 different cell-types in support of their new and active body-plans and lifestyle habits, without any lead-up, intermediate precursors found in the Precambrian rock/sediment strata, or in imaginative fictional contemplation.

            Imposing a skeletal explanatory framework over the fossil record, of gradually continuous biological development chopped-up into introducing one new cell-type at a time, is unsupported by the fact-based evidence we see all around us today in the natural world of well-defined living organisms having discontinuous gaps between them, that even children can recognize.

            In a learning game with young children, we point to various animals in a book as they answer that this picture is of an elephant and that picture is of a dog, cat, or horse.  They recognize the well-defined differences between each animal even before they stumble over correctly pronouncing the names hippopotamus or rhinoceros.

            As we look out at the natural living world today, we do not see a multitude of forms all blending together into continuous linkages, that would negate young children from being able at first-glance to separate them into their unique names.  

            This was the case in 1859 as it is today.

            An argument can be made that it was the atheism within naturalistic materialism that falsely interpreted the data at that time-period, and not the empirical, fact-based evidence itself.

            To suggest instead an alternative skeletal explanatory framework over the geological data and the fossil record of functional end-point outcomes in biology that are achieved by the input of blocks of information in clustered groups, this requires the existence of an Intelligent Designing Agent as the architect and builder of the natural living and non-living world.

            Again, this is unacceptable to the worldview of scientific materialism.

            In the final analysis, if possession of the facts does not lead to near-perfect conclusions clearly apparent to nearly everyone, this introduces a gray area of discretionary judgment into the equation of the search for truth in science and in human living, which is inexplicable in a purely material universe.

            If the final takeaway after five-hundred years of the Scientific Revolution is that after most of the evidence regarding the natural world is in…has been acquired…that as smart as we humans think humans are, if we still need a smarter God to lead and guide us into genuine truth in all of the realms of existence (Jn. 16:13), this would truly be a colossal discovery.   

From Pondering Our Creation: Christian Essays on Science and Faith.


[1] “The Origin of the Elements” by Jefferson Lab, Nov. 20, 2012 with Dr. Edward Murphy, University of Virginia, on You Tube.

[2] Fossil Discontinuities: Refutation of Darwinism & Confirmation of Intelligent Design—Gunter Bechly, published Oct. 11, 2018 on You Tube by FOCLOnline.

[3] Watch the Internet interview on You Tube: The Return of the God Hypothesis: Interview with Stephen Meyer.  Streamed live on May 13, 2020, Dr. Sean McDowell.

[4] See “The Fine Tuning of Nature for the Major Innovations in the History of Life” by Dr. Michael Denton, published Oct. 16, 2019 on YouTube by Zefrum fur BioKomplexitat & Natur Teleologie.

[5] Copy number variation and the secret of life—with Aoife McLysaght, produced by The Royal Institution, May 27, 2014, on You Tube.

[6] Francis Crick, What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery (New York: Basic Books, 1998), 138.

[7] On the Origin of Phyla—Interviews with Dr. James Valentine, by Access Research Network, published on Oct. 22, 20`4, on You Tube.

The Giant Asian Hornet, revised Part 2

Constrained Optimization

            Our modern Age of Information tells us that the only thing capable of the engineering concept of the constrained optimization of a sequential series of decisional yes/no choices aimed specifically at reaching targeted end-point outcomes in the future, using foresight…is intelligent agency.

            As argued here, this is not fact-based evidence that supports the loosely termed “behavior adaptation” used by Jerry B. Coyne to enlist the defense strategy of the native Asian honeybee into the doctrinal camp of Darwinian macroevolution.

            The concept of Asian honeybees immobilizing and taking-out the lone scout wasp mirrors the capture of an enemy spy in human warfare over the long course of human history.

            How would and could this intelligence-based military defense tactic of catching and taking-out a spy on reconnaissance for the enemy army, be functionally operative within the instinctual program of an insect like the Asian honeybee?

             The more plausible analysis of this remarkable reality in nature is that the balanced predator/prey relationship between the giant Asian hornet and their native honeybee counterpart cannot be explained through an incrementally escalating arms-race of competing features over time, using small-step improvements. 

            The trial-and-error approach of materialism produces an oscillating, back-and-forth battleground of colossal failure for one side or the other until they both reach the equally balanced, competing features we observe today between these two native, Asian insect combatants.

            To posit a purely materialistic explanation for this mature predator/prey relationship requires a conscious, lessons-learned quality of ever-improving informational plateaus, subtly importing the intelligent decision-making of thoughtful agency into the mindless mutation/selection methodology of Darwinian evolution.

            The intelligent foresight inherent in yes/no choice-making locking-in function in evermore complex plateaus, is not allowed in a purely materialistic universe of accidental trial-and-error.

Yet without this feature of thoughtfully discerning choice-making stealthily smuggled-in, natural selection could not coordinate the forward-moving trajectories of added information that could reach the functionally balanced strategies of this predator/prey relationship.     

            We do not have to uncritically swallow the idea that the European honeybees imported into the foreign environment of Japan will over time (thousands of years?) through the accidental method of trial-and-error likewise discover this singular, successful defensive strategy on their own in isolation, all the while suffering heavy losses in route to finding the very specific information that 115-117º F combined with CO² will defeat this otherwise unstoppable predator.

            This complex, highly specified, and coherently integrated information is intelligently designed upfront into the DNA and the gene regulatory networks of the native Asian honeybees, but is clearly absent in the European honeybees, evidenced when they are imported across the continent to Japan.

            This highlights an original intent found in the molecular biochemical information that must reside within the living cells of the Asian honeybee, being unnaturally overridden through the independent intervention of the agency of unknowing human beekeepers in Japan and Europe importing foreign, European honeybees into Asia.

            In this case of importing European honeybees into Asia, the playing-field of environment is not a factor.  The challenge for the European honeybees is not adaptation to a changed external environment, but adaptation to a lethally superior predator.

            The key question then in biology is how and when does the critical survival strategy get introduced at the genetic level, to produce in the living honeybees this distinctive lifestyle habit supported by their architectural body-plans, that can actualize into viable function a military defense strategy from abstract information to a winning outcome in the real world?

            Will the mutation/selection mechanism of Darwinian evolution in small-step, incremental gradualism be up to the job, or is it self-evident that upfront, instantaneous function and fit is the more plausible explanation?

            I would argue from the evidence that the input of this genetic information to produce function and fit occurs at the inception of the Asian honeybee.

I would argue that the materialistic program of an unbroken continuity of a small-step, incrementally progressive series of back-and-forth improvements in the arsenals of the Asian honeybees and the giant Asian hornet…is plausibly untenable.

Blocks of New Cell-Types in Clustered Groups

            I would argue from the evidence that the introduction of the genetic information and the new and different cell-types to create a functional Asian honeybee, to survive in an environment that contains the giant Asian hornet, must occur through the addition of a block of new cell-types in a clustered group, and not doled-out one at a time in a blind search for function through the trial-and-error processes of materialism.

            This I would also argue is factual evidence for designing agency that is not illusory.

            How exactly would a naturalistic Mother Nature provide the intentional foresight and directional determination to persist through the enumerable lethal failures of a hypothetical trial-and-error process, to reach a successful outcome for the honeybees defending themselves? 

            To do this Mother Nature would have to rise to the level of being a conscious, deliberative deity herself.

            This information-based defensive strategy by the native Asian honeybee colonies is successfully functional and universally operative today in Japan. 

            The question can be asked, do we currently see a positive move forward by the European honeybee colonies imported into Japan, exhibiting a trial-and-error start of clustering around the intruder scout wasp and in unison flapping their wings, exhibiting the first signs of a developing defense in support of the behavioral adaptation theory?

            Can we identify an experiential transition part-way in development within the imported European honeybee colonies pointing towards the future perfected use of this successful defense tactic commonly utilized by their Asian cousins?

            Has word begun to spread through the natural, molecular language of inter-breeding and genetic drift from the successfully armed Asian honeybees to the unsuccessfully unarmed, newcomer European honeybees imported into Japan (if this is even possible)? 

            This vital genetic information for survival would then be actualized through the mechanisms of molecular biochemistry within the cell.

            But behavioral adaptation, inter-breeding, and genetic drift do not take us back the necessary one-step to explain the introduction of this information-based, novel defense strategy of the Asian honeybee in the first-place.

            Long before a back-and-forth, escalating arms-race campaign can commence towards achieving these two incredible military-quality strategies of attack and counterattack, the fundamental question must be asked-and-answered as to the original source of this complex information.

            How could a purpose-free and meaningless material universe produce such a complex, fine-tuned, and coordinated relationship, exclusive to these two species of insects alone, falling-short of an all-hands-on-deck, all-out warfare but instead focuses and stops at the predetermined sweet-spot of the limited goal of taking-out the lone scout only?

            This has the constrained optimization of ecological balance written all over it, which chooses between multiple competing objectives to reach the optimum sweet-spot in the Asian insect-world, of neither the giant Asian hornet nor the Asian honeybees being able to completely wipe-out the other in all-out, major combat.  

            No other living insect species that I know of clusters around a captured lone spy and flaps their wings to raise the temperature and create CO² gas to kill this roving scout on reconnaissance, before the scout can communicate back the whereabouts of the honeybee beehive.

Skeletal Explanatory Frameworks Enable Spinning the Narrative of Facts into Differing Hypotheses

            At this point someone will logically suggest the Darwinian mindset that given millions of years for development, would not a series of trial-and-error failures and successes eventually lead to the perfected defense strategy of the Asian honeybee?

            This assumes that length of time is the beneficially determining factor.

            The skeletal explanatory framework upon which to connect the various factual data-points used in the standard methodology for all scientific research, is in scientific jargon called a theoretical hypothesis, but is always based upon the known factual evidence available at that time-period in human history.

            In defense of Charles Darwin in 1859, he was basing his theoretical hypothesis upon the idea that the physical universe was eternal, that he had unlimited time to work with to extrapolate microevolution into macroevolution.

            Darwin did not know that in 1929, an expanding universe would be discovered by Edwin Hubble peering through the massive telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory, that looking backwards in time would pinpoint a beginning of the physical universe that now limits the length of time for progressive development down to a finite amount. 

            But the issue isn’t length of time, but instead philosophical interpretations as selected by humans to create skeletal explanatory frameworks…being theoretical hypotheses.  

            One of the themes of this book is to say that the theorizing and conceptualization that is an essential part of science, is related to, but categorically disconnected from the empiricism of the scientific method of research that follows sequential step-by-step protocols that produce fact-based evidence.

            The theorizing and conceptualization part of the scientific enterprise is philosophically analytical, and produces provisional conclusions that are not themselves scientific, fact-based, raw data.  

The theoretical hypothesis from a philosophically naturalistic viewpoint says that the only acceptable route for the Asian honeybee to achieve defensive survivability against the giant Asian hornet, over a long time-period is through the small steps of gradual, continuous development.

            But length of time as the controlling factor in the equation unjustifiably assumes that change will always go in a positive direction, leading eventually to function, which is a philosophical projection based upon the factual evidence that change does go in a positive direction over time.

            But time cannot be the explanatory causation here, because change in a random and undirected process could go forwards, backwards, or in endlessly repetitive circles.

            The obvious problem that should shout-out to us here in this example is that given millions of years to work with, the Asian honeybees in route towards a functional defense strategy this brilliantly original and well-conceived, would be annihilated in the naturalistic process of gradual, incrementally progressive steps before ever reaching successful function.

            Time plus chance does not lead to function when the systems of information for survival are as complex as the defense strategy of the Asian honeybee.

            Time plus chance cannot reach a successful outcome when there are too many complex steps to get there.

            The fundamental problem in looking at the myriad of diverse instinctual lifestyle habits prolific in the natural living world, is that from a materialist worldview it presumes on philosophical grounds that these end-point maturities must be arrived at through the gradual process of small incremental steps…as long as time plus chance equates to unbroken continuity in a positive direction to reach function.

            The skeletal explanatory framework connecting the factual data-points is what is wrong here, when the philosophical worldview of scientific materialism is utilized.

From Pondering Our Creation: Christian Essays on Science and Faith.

Gethsemane 2

            Satan (Lucifer), like many of us today, thought he knew better than God. 

            Satan persists today in his rebellion against God because he thinks his destiny is to replace God.

            The error of sin in human nature is to insist upon being in complete control as junior gods sitting atop the thrones of our lives, a position that we are only partially qualified to occupy.

            This is where the “I will do this and I will do that,” self-serving, God-less attitude comes from. 

            By contrast, the example that Jesus sets for us with enormous personal difficulty in the Garden of Gethsemane, and the way that He opened up for us in life through His own painful death on the cross, is based upon the words: “nevertheless, notmy will, but thine, be done.”

            Satan and unregenerate mankind, by contrast, hate the idea of submitting themselves to the loving and unselfish rulership of God in their lives to such an extent that they will actually go to the extreme measure of attempting to kill God Himself to get rid of this idea. 

            When God willingly allowed Himself to be crucified through the Second Person of the Trinity, through Jesus the Son of God, He unmasked the truly evil character of the go-it-on-our-own-without-God approach to life. 

            Stubborn pride is that strong within self-autonomy.  It will refuse God any participation in our lives if this participation infringes even a little upon our own will and way. 

            This is why the world pushes Jesus Christ away.  This is why the gospel message of love and forgiveness is so inexplicably offensive to the world. 

            This is the central issue at the core of our existence.  When we are operating as our own god, atop the throne of our lives, we are lost (Jn. 8:24).

            This is the root cause behind humanity’s problems. 

            This issue cost Jesus Christ His life, on our behalf, through the cross.  It will likewise cost us death to our self-in-charge natures when we choose to follow Christ. 

            An essential part of becoming born-again in the Spirit is not only acknowledging Jesus Christ as Savior, but also restoring Him to His rightful position as Lord in our lives.  

            In the motion picture Ben Hur, staring Charlton Heston, toward the end of the movie Judah Ben Hur, his future wife Esther, and his mother and sister are sitting on the side of a long stairway as the condemned prisoner Jesus is ascending the steps carrying His cross. 

            Judah Ben Hur’s mother Miriam, and his sister, Tersa, both have contracted leprosy.  Esther had thought to bring the two women to hear Jesus preach, and thus give them the hope that there was a life after death, free of leprosy.  But instead of being able to listen to the teaching of Jesus as they had hoped, all four were surprised to find that Jesus had been tried, condemned, and sentenced to death by crucifixion. 

            As Jesus approached them carrying His cross, Esther asked in amazed astonishment “how can this be?’  How could the religious rulers in Jerusalem and the Roman authorities have condemned Jesus, a teacher of righteousness and the healer of so many people, to something as unthinkable as execution by Roman crucifixion? 

            At the cross is where the stark contrast between the vulgarities of human sin crashes up against the divine love of God. 

            Mankind at that moment was unwittingly displaying its own worst condition. 

            In open view, for all to see, was the futility of man’s wisdom and self-works when they exist apart from God, as mankind was performing the most embarrassing indignity possible in putting to death its own Creator.  Nothing remotely imaginable could be more wrong than this. 

            To God’s everlasting credit, this very same misguided and inexcusable action by the Pharisees, Sadducees, scribes, and Roman rulers, was providing the means for salvation and eternal life to mankind through a divine atonement for man’s sins. 

            At that moment in history, the two opposing viewpoints and lifestyles available to all human beings through the freedom of choice…being self-autonomy apart from God leading to sin, and fellowship with God leading to holiness…violently crash with deadly impact against each other at the cross of Christ. 

            If ever there was a persuasive and clearly demonstrated argument for the wrongness of man going his own way apart from God, the cross is that argument. 

            Man’s actions on that day condemned not Jesus, who had done nothing wrong, but condemned the practice of a religion that conspires with a “civilized” Roman judicial system that can both be so far off-the-mark that they end up killing the God and Creator of the universe (Jn. 1:1-3). 

            If ever there was a well-stated, practically demonstrated argument for trusting and relying upon a capable and loving God to show us the correct approach to life, the cross is that argument. 

            Salvation, redemption, and a new resurrected life of love and peace is made possible by God through this enormous blunder by mankind in putting to death the Creator of life itself on a cross fashioned crudely out of two large, heavy pieces of wood and some metal spikes. 

            That God is intelligent and well-intentioned enough to take the worst action in all of human history, in all of eternity, and turn it right-side up into the very means to provide forgiveness, cleansing from sin, and re-birth into a new spiritual life of joy and peace, is something so sublimely powerful it may take a lifetime in heaven to comprehend and appreciate.

            On one side of the cross was the enormous tally of all of history’s offenses, misdeeds, sorrows, injustices, and shortcomings that are a result of fallen mankind going its own way apart from God. 

            On the other side was the contrasting approach of Jesus using surrender, faith, dependence, and reliance upon the Father’s and His own uniquely ingenious plan to cancel-out the weight of this massive debt of human sin (Rev. 13:8). 

            No wonder Jesus sweated great drops of blood when finally confronted with the insurmountable task of nullifying this great mass of self-centered rebellion, using only His own spotless and blemish-free life, and a lamb-like surrender and reliance upon the will of the Father. 

            No wonder Jesus had to return moments later to the same spot in the Garden of Gethsemane to pray a second time “more earnestly” (Lk. 22:44). 

            At the cross is where Christians must take their cue to venture-out on the path of faith and trust in God, to match the stories of the lives of people of faith as patterned in the Bible. 

            Self-autonomy, self-reliance, and self-direction are on the wrong side of the cross, in the territory of man-made religion, in the camp of the spiritually blind religious leaders and the worldly-minded Roman authorities who crucified Jesus.     

            C.S. Lewis said that we are not just imperfect people who need growth, but we are rebels who need to lay down our arms. 

            Laying down our arms occurs when we repent of our sins, recognize our need for God, and accept Jesus into our lives. 

            But this is not a one-time event at our Christian conversion.  The Christian life as a disciple involves a desire, a bend-of-the-heart toward daily surrender and yielding to God.  It involves placing Jesus Christ at the top of our priority list.  That is why Jesus said we have to pick up our cross daily (Lk. 9:23). 

            For the Christian disciple, the attitude of “I want to do things my way,” has to be crucified on the cross. 

            The calling of God for our lives, which displaces our own self-in-charge nature, establishes a Godly context, a clear set of goals, and a very specific arrangement of situations and circumstances.  This then fashions a path of faith within the course of our lives where the old rebel in us has increasingly more difficulty expressing itself. 

            A genuine walk of faith set-up by Jesus Christ creates constructive and positive things to do that lead to personal growth and ministry to others, absent the rebellion of self-sovereignty. 

            When Moses received his calling at the burning bush, and obediently set-off toward Egypt to deliver the Israelites, he began living in the non-rebel mode. 

            After Paul was converted on the road to Damascus, it was the action of following Jesus within this new context of being the missionary evangelist to the Gentile world, which enabled Paul to now live as a non-rebel. 

            When Jesus said to Peter in Luke 22:32, “And when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren,” it is within the actual context of strengthening the newly born Christian church in Jerusalem that Peter is fulfilling his calling, in living as a non-rebel. 

            This is why the genuine gospel message of repentance, salvation, faith, trust, and transformation into a new person “in Christ” is so important.         The “truth that will set us free” is the life following Jesus in non-rebellion to His leading. 

            This is why we follow a crucified and resurrected Son of God. 

            The will and way of Jesus was crucified to the will of God the Father, in the Garden of Gethsemane and at Calvary, for the benefit of all of mankind. 

            Jesus went before us in this regard.  The fact that Jesus Himself was without sin, tells us that the way of the cross is perfect. 

            This is one of the key character attributes which qualifies Jesus to be our leader.  We learn daily how to “lay down our arms” and become a non-rebel, in terms of our relationship with God, by following the sinless, perfect non-rebel in this regard…Jesus Christ. 

            Every born-again Christian can examine themselves as to who is in charge in their lives, self or Jesus Christ. 

            Every Christian can enter into their personal “prayer closet”, get on their knees, lift their arms up to God, and ask God to assume a greater role in their lives. 

            Every Christian can ask God in prayer to open-up our spiritual eyes, and unclog our spiritual ears, so that we can see and hear God better in the specific ways that God would like to lead us.  

            If it is possible for God to weep in heaven, this is the type of sincere request from His saints that will probably bring tears of heartfelt joy to God’s eyes. 

            Our walk of faith, our purchase of the knowledge of good and evil through a God-composed journey of faith life-script, means that much to God. 

            Jesus died and rose again that we might have an abundant life through this living journey of faith now and forever.

Mass/Energy and Information 6

            Modern scientific investigation was alwaysgoingto arrive at a point in timewhen it reached the inescapable recognition of the need for a Designing Intelligent Agent.

            The organized complexity of the information content now reveals scientifically an architectural and engineering Artisan of incomparable precision at the highest standards of craftsmanship. 

            This Artisan has complete mastery of the database of information to create everything material and non-material in existence in the universe, because He Himself created all of this information.

            Because the natural world was always this complexstarting at the Big Bang creation of the universe 13.7-billion years ago and the formation of our planet earth 4.5-billion years ago, this paradigm-changing epiphany was waiting all this time for human scientific discovery to catch-up. 

            The functional coherence of organized complexity now points to intelligent design as the only remaining plausible option. 

            Not everyone will become PhD scientists, able to navigate through the technical facts spanning several disciplines of research, now supporting design and thus agency in nature.  

            Not everyone has a college degree in philosophy, able to parse the subtle arguments for and against theism and atheism.

            Winning a consensus that favors design in today’s scientific and philosophical communities, thereby rejecting the atheistic version of materialism, would be without question a monumental event in human history.

            But the discovery by modern science of the inescapable presence of design in the natural world, based upon a fuller understanding and appreciation of information in this new Age of Information, and thus the existence of an intelligent designer God expands a million-fold when filtered through the biblical narrative stories of faith. 

            Making a compelling argument to the general populace that a faith-journey following the perfectly precise and accurate God of the Bible as the one true worldview narrative excluding all others (Mt. 7:13-14; Jn. 11:25, 14:6) is a bottom-line conclusion immerging from both science and Christian living today.

            As Abraham receives his calling in the city of Haran and travels south to Canaan, with each step he takes God is displacing the conventional life he would have otherwise lived in Haran with an extraordinary life-script Abraham could not have dreamed-up in his wildest imagination.

            Displacing our ways with His higher ways is boldly presumptuous and to borrow the British expression “cheeky” of the God of the Bible, to think He knows better than we do in this area of moral values and optimized destiny for human lives.

            But this is precisely what we see in the biblical narrative stories of faith, buttressed now by the modern-day discoveries that the Creator of the physical universe knows what He is doing beyond anything we previously could have imagined.

            This is where confidence in the Creator of the universe connects with confidence in the God of the Bible, who can compose life-scripts for believers today that have genuine purpose and meaning.

            The final end-point purpose of the scientific researchepiphany in nature of the existence of a Designing Agent, having the foresight to capably marshal all of the varied components needed to fashion this functional universe, can rightfully then make the logical connection to validate this same high competence of the God of the Bible in composing journeys of faith life-scripts.

            In my opinion, the timeless God of the Bible knew full well that Darwinian macroevolutionary theory would eventually fail, given further human scientific investigation.

            The exploration into the theory of evolution as the explanatory mechanism for the vast diversity of life was a worthwhile endeavor…it was a good try…it had to be fully investigated through human scientific discovery.

            From the perspective of Charles Darwin in 1859, the extrapolation from microevolution to macroevolution “had legs.”  It appeared to be able to take us somewhere as he pondered the variant traits being put-out as genetic mutations in the finches living on the 13 islands of the Galapagos Archipelago.

            But Darwin did not know about the hydrogen atom that has one and only one proton in its nucleus, which exhibits a well-defined essence that differentiates it from a helium atom that has two protons.

            There are no one-and-a-half protons as transitional intermediates between a hydrogen atom and a helium atom.

            All of the fundamental elements in the Periodic Table have a whole number of protons in their nucleus, without fractional intermediates.

            Certainly, the movements of plate tectonics that formed Mount Everest occurred over a long and gradual period of time.  But Mount Everest was always a mountain.  Mount Everest was never a river, a cloud in the sky, or a tree-forest.

            An elephant is not a giraffe.  A lion is not a cheetah.  A modern human is much different than a modern ape.

            Gradualism is not prolific in the natural world.

            Darwin’s finches are not in transition towards becoming something else.

            Darwin’s recognition of microevolution at the time was insightfully brilliant, but his theoretical extrapolation to macroevolution using genetic mutation and natural selection was in error because the database of facts he was working with was premature by at least 100 years. 

            The divinely timeless God of the Bible also knows that the worldview of materialism will also fail in the areas of science, philosophy, ethics, culture, and for many people in the court of public opinion.

            Modern science now or in the very near future will reach the point of the inescapable conclusion that our natural world has its origin and maintenance through an intelligent designing agent.

            Then our decision to reject God will not be based upon science, but based rather upon the more fundamental and timeless question of who is capably in-charge regarding the broad course and destiny of our lives…ourselves or God.

            This lifts Christian faith today in the living God of the Bible way above science in relative importance, turning on its head the modern materialistic idea that the factual empiricism of science takes precedence over biblical faith in God’s leadership knowledge and abilities, regarding the ultimate purpose and meaning in life now and for all eternity.

            Scientific investigation and the biblical narrative stories of faith exhibit the same high-quality of purpose-driven intensity in their search for truth, although they use different methods of research.

            These two different methods of research should not cloud the parallel commonality between science and biblically defined faith (Heb. 11:1; Prov. 3:5-6), which upon closer scrutiny reveals human nature at its highest and best[1], in the two complementary areas of the pursuit of factual knowledge and moral judgment.

Random and Undirected Serendipity Will Not Reach Function

            Finally, the entire edifice of Darwinism applied to biology is built upon a faulty foundation.

            Darwinism is bult upon the idea that chance over time will find truth, that random and undirected events will reach function.

            But the natural world is fixed, settled, and determinate, in that we study the laws of physics and chemistry in action and then modify our views to match reality.

            The natural world does not change to suit us.

            If the scientific method tells us anything, it tells us that the truth inherent in the natural world is there for us to discover and to the best of our abilities work with it to our benefit.

            But such things as the speed of light, the force of gravity, and the expansion rate of the universe are beyond our ability to change if we thought we could do better and improve upon them.

            If we could change the rotation speed of the earth, would a shorter or a longer day/night duration be more optimum than the 24-hour period now?

            Darwinism assumes an uncertain, not yet settled, unknown, and indeterminate reality in flux in the natural world, of progress moving slowly in a positive direction towards some future improved-upon function.

            But modern science in the 21st-century tells us plainly that the truth of the physics, chemistry, and mathematics of the physical universe were fixed and settled-upon early in the age of the universe.

            When we observe ever-increasing complexity in the architectural body-plans and lifestyle habits of living organisms over the vast geological history of the earth, there must be another explanation other than the indeterminate, random, and undirected causes theorized through Darwinian evolution.

            Otherwise, the truth underlying function in the natural world is thrown haphazardly up into the air and is governed by the serendipitous happenstance of blind chance.

            Genetic mutations generated by random chance, producing variant physical traits chosen through natural selection for enhanced survivability and reproduction, is the engine that drives Darwinian evolution.

            If science is the search for truth, then the indeterminate relativism of blind chance is emphatically not the reality we observe in the natural world.


[1] “How did we miss this?”  Podcast streamed live on You Tube interview “The Jesus Effect” of J. Warner Wallace on his book Person of Interest, published on Mike Winger, Dec. 20, 2021.

Mass/Energy and Information 5

            Moravec’s Paradox makes the insightful observation that because modern machines can perform complex calculations like finding the square-root of 3,492 in a spit-second, we naturally make the incorrect assumption that machines can also perform “simple” functions that a one-year-old child can do.

            A one-year-old child giggles and laughs when I play “peek-a-boo” by taking my hand away from covering my face and saying “peek-a-boo!” then putting back my hand to cover my smiling face.

            A young child instantly grasps the nature of this game.

            But this is many times more complex in the individual instructions that must be broken-down for a machine to duplicate this same child’s game…to even begin to approach a smiling face and cheerful voice that could elicit laughter from a child.

            The one-year-old sitting on the floor building a small tower using square wooden blocks is an activity that seemingly is so simple that a child can do it.  Yet for a machine this child’s play is many times more complex, requiring the computer code-language instructions that must be programmed into the machine involving the concepts of the recognition, grasping, positioning, balancing, and not knocking over the other blocks as the tower is built.

            Humans have roughly 100 different nerve cell-types[1], billions of neural networks, and trillions of neural network connections inside the limited cranial volume of the mind/brain.[2]

            If we theoretically attempt to manufacture an Agatha Christie machine robot that can artistically create bestselling murder mystery books, we would have to produce the same high-level independence of yes/no decision-making. 

            A human-like machine using artificial intelligence would have to be able to create the physical context for a child to correctly recognize that “peek-a-boo” is a humorous game, and equally difficult for an Agatha Christie machine robot to differentiate that some brilliant storyline plots create spellbinding suspense, but an infinite number of alternate, less brilliant plotlines do not.

Housing Construction and Debugging

            An interesting aspect that is part of the career of building construction that I worked in, is that houses are too large in size to be fully assembled in one central, factory location and then shipped to their individual building sites.

            This means that the debugging that can occur on the mass-production assembly-line during the initial trial-run phase, to get the manufacturing of each identical product assembled in the most efficient and cost-effective way, cannot be utilized in new housing construction because of this inhibiting factor of large size.

            Everyone knows in new building construction that the architects, engineers, and interior designers cannot invest the time to produce perfect design plans and still economically make a profit.  

            Every new building construction project, starting with the smallest size house (two-bedroom/two-bath), must individually debug the problems and mistakes onsite as they arise, that otherwise would be identified and corrected in-mass through upfront, initial trial-runs that are the normal process for identical products being manufactured in large numbers on mass-production assembly-lines.

            The key point here is that the issues and problems discovered as they arise unexpected during the various phases of the new housing construction, can beneficially be pushed backwards in time on mass-production assembly-lines to the highly condensed, upfront, trial-run phase…because the products can be shipped after they are fully assembled.

            This vital feature eliminates the respond-in-the-reactive-mode, daily occurrence in housing construction of “putting-out fires” as unexpected and unanticipated problems are unearthed as each new phase of the work materializes…which otherwise would be unacceptable on a daily basis in mass-production manufacturing.

            Extending this concept to the creation of the universe at the Big Bang, how difficult would it be to manufacture an essentially error-free physical universe without the benefit of a trial-run?

            The speed of light generated at the Big Bang has one optimum numerical value, but has an infinity of possible “no” choices that were deliberately rejected at time t=0.

            The force of gravity generated at the Big Bang has one very specific value that coordinates and integrates within an accompanying suite of other mathematical constants and values in the cosmos, with an infinity of possible “no” choices that appear to be deliberately rejected according to recognizable, upfront intention…again at time t=0.

            The expansion rate of the universe generated at the Big Bang has one fine-tuned value that enables other realities to compliment and coalesce into a universe that supports complex life like ourselves. 

            This expansion rate appears to have no conceivable trial-run debugging phase to achieve error-free function, popping-out at the Big Bang at time t=0.

            Murder mystery stories can go in enumerable directions, some of which produce timeless bestsellers and some that do not.

            Quantum mechanics now tells us that mathematics can be constrained upfront to limit the solutions coming out of a wave function to enable a universe like ours to pop-out of non-material mathematics into a physical world, at the first moments of the Big Bang.

            This requires a Mathematical Physicist in existence prior to the creation of time to put-in the required constraints into the quantum physics equation to actualize a functional universe like this one.[3]

            This moderating discretion of choice-making between function reveals “yes” options and “no” rejections that could otherwise have created a life-prohibitive universe.

            According now to the most recent science this intelligent choice-making had to be in existence before the Big Bang creation of space and time, putting-in the necessary constraints into the quantum mechanics of the mathematical wave-function equation even before there was such a physical reality of quantum mechanics.

            The limitations of large size imposed upon the pursuit of mistake-free efficiency in new housing construction reveals that the foresight of human designers to imagine final outcomes on paper that materialize into physical buildings, still lacks the quality of divinely timeless foresight that could eliminate upfront every crash and collision of building elements competing for the same space.

            These crashes and collisions are commonly resolved daily on every new mass-production assembly-line having the feature of an initial, trial-run debugging phase.


[1] On the Origin of Phyla—Interviews with Dr. James Valentine, by Access Research Network, published on Oct. 22, 2014, on You Tube.

[2] Moravec’s Paradox – Why are machines so smart, yet so dumb? On Up and Atom published July 8, 2019

[3] The Return of the God Hypothesis: Interview with Stephen Meyer with Dr. Sean McDowell, May 13, 2020 on You Tube.

Mass/Energy and Information 4

            Newly introduced organisms fit-in right away

            One theme put forward in these blogs is that the ever-increasing complexity that has produced the vast diversity of life-forms we see today, is always introducing living organisms that are at the perfected edge of specified refinement.  

            What is staring us in the face, when we look at biology, is the reality that human designed and manufactured products are always complete and functional at the forward edge of specified, refined completion for their intended use.

            Human agency universally produces functionally complete objects, from fully cooked, baked lasagna at our favorite Italian restaurant, to a bicycle that has two wheels, to a new automobile that has brakes, to computer software programs that are debugged and operational, and to completed murder mystery books that are spell-checked and edited for good grammar.

            We do not see in the vast diversity of life today any organisms that are in major transitional development part-way towards some future outcome going from barely functional to more functional to completely functional. 

            We presently do not see works-in-progress other than the things that have dynamic change as part of their defining nature, such as the formation of deltas where rivers meet the sea, the erosion of geography due to wind, rain, snow, and ice, the eventual shrinkage and cooling of our sun, and the continued expansion of the universe.

            We do not see dynamic change as the universally prolific paradigm of development in the natural living and non-living world.

            Applying Charles Lyell’s dictum of using the present to interpret the past in the historical sciences like geology, this present-day evidence then tells us that living organisms enter into existence with specified, refined maturity at the forward edge of their conceptual essence. 

            Living organisms enter into the world functionally complete enough to fit into their biodiverse and ecologically balanced niches, to be able to survive and to reproduce “right-out-of-the-box, no assembly tools required.”

            Modern science tells us that the proverbial watch we find on the beach that points towards the existence of a watchmaker, is not a quarter or half completed watch, but a fully completed watch at the end-point of its functionally defined essence.

            If the scientific fact-based evidence of embryonic development exhibits directional aim towards sustainable, fully mature function in living organisms at the molecular level, then this line of thinking is in direct contrast to the simple-to-complex ideology of random and undirected processes applied to biology.

            This is a key departure from the “nature makes no sudden leaps” concept proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859.

            The concept of blocks of different new cell-types introduced in grouped clusters enables immediate function in new architectural body-plans capable of integrating into the complexity of the current biodiversity and ecology of a particular era.

            This then harmonizes with the leaps of development from bi-pedal, upright walking pre-human ancestors 4 to 7-million years ago, to the near vertical spike upward of the human capacity from the first appearance of a letter alphabet in Egypt around 3,200 B.C. to humans walking on the moon in 1969.

            If the Darwinian concept that “nature makes no sudden leaps” is false, if the true reality is that development occurs at the mature end-points of function as the result of massive inputs of information at the molecular level inside living cells, then the current controversy over the clear absence of a gradual linear progression from pre-humans to modern humans is resolved.

            The differences between Australopithecus (4-7 million years ago), Homo habilis (2-million years ago), Homo erectus (1.8-million years ago), Cro-Magnon man (being early Homo sapiens 200,000 years ago), and modern humans can more plausibly be explained by the additions of new blocks of cell-types in clusters, to produce improved development and function.

            This then resolves the ideological rift between naturalistic materialism and intelligent design currently being debated within the realms of philosophy, theology, and science.

            This is discussed more fully in the chapter Human Development and Evolution

            I see the transitional leaps of early life at 3.8-billion years ago from the single-cell bacteria to multi-cellular algae floating on top of the oceans, to the Precambrian jellyfish having 10 to 12 new and different cell-types, to the radiation of new creatures with architectural body-plans having 30 to 40 different cell-types during the Cambrian Explosion at 535-million years ago…as increasing complexity throughout geologic history to our present day.

            This is always occurring at the guided and directed level of putting-out functionally mature organisms able to adapt and survive at the first moments of their introduction, factoring-in the genetic mutations that also over time put-out beneficial variant traits to be chosen by natural selection to enhance adaptation to changing environments.

            This non-Darwinian thinking encompasses large jumps of development tied to the introduction of a coordinated ensemble of new cell-types to achieve immediate function. 

            These large jumps of development arise from the abstract informational concepts of living organisms into their actualized material expression, altogether bypassing transitional, trial-and-error intermediates. 

            This is empirically the fact-based evidence in the fossil record and what we observe today in the natural world.[1]

            This non-Darwinian approach requires the intentionalrelease of well-timed, physical expressions of information that consistently produce fully functional living organisms. 

            These strategically released inputs of information come from within living cells that could not plausibly be explained through an accidental, trial-and-error, small-step progression over long stretches of time that would be easily detectable as on-going today to molecular biochemists.

            We see in this present “miracle” of information in living cells the use of material molecular mechanisms to build and accurately position the different cell types in architectural body-plans to create such diverse organisms as hawks, spiders, sea crabs, whales, wolves, and humans. 

            We see the same quality of actualized information that produces the distinctive architectural body-plan of the African bull elephant and the instinctual lifestyle habit of its intimidating full-speed charge. 

            If all of the artistic, creative information resides in the living cell, if all of the work takes place molecularly to produce functional living organisms before they make their grand entrance onto the stage of the living world, this then reduces the Darwinian model of mutation/selection to the more limited minor role of pre-engineered, microevolutionary variability adaptable to changing environments.

            It is inconceivable that Agatha Christie would sit in front of her typewriter or laptop computer and randomly hit the keys with her eyes closed and her mind on other things, hoping through a trial-and-error, accidental process that she could produce complex and highly specified information arranged in the form of a classic murder mystery who-done-it story.   

            It is inconceivable that the complex and highly specified information we find being coordinated and integrated inside living cells towards functional end-point outcomes could be the product of mindless and undirected processes.

            Darwin’s initial extrapolation in 1859 from microevolution to macroevolution in his book The Origin of Species as an explanation for the vast diversity of life on earth, is no longer plausible in this new Age of Information because incremental, trial-and-error gradualism as the means to produce complex and specified systems of information does not work.[2]

            The physical universe requires a timeless creator.

            Darwin’s fundamental condition that nature makes no sudden leaps locks his theory into the materialistic dynamic of change over time, which no longer works when applied to the complexity we find in the living world.

            But a timeless, Spirit-Being God can input the new information or turn-on a gene regulatory network switch to release 5, 10, or 20 new and different cell-types together to produce new architectural body-plans in time t=0.

            This can be represented by a “width-less”[3] vertical line on the two-dimensional x/y-graph of change (vertical axis) over time (horizontal axis) over the course of geological history.

            We do not have a PBS documentary, video recording of Agatha Christie composing her murder mystery book And Then There Was None.

            I never personally met Agatha Christie.  For all I know, she could be a divinely timeless God who produces her books in a split-second, or she could be a normal human being taking 6-months to write each book.  The physical, end-result product today would look the same either way.

            Common descent in biology can be true without utilizing Darwin’s model of small, incrementally progressive steps fueled by random and accidental serendipity.

            Common descent can simply have another and better explanation, being a divinely timeless God inputting massive infusions of information at various points in time, represented by “width-less” vertical lines on the two-dimensional x/y-graph, these lines having zero-time durations.

            For a brilliant and up-to-date, 35-minute refutation of Darwinian evolution see Gunter Bechly Explains What The Fossil Evidence Really Says, hosted by Discovery Science, published November 23, 2021 on You Tube.

            This is how true science operates.  New, more correct information surfaces to clarify or replace earlier theoretical hypotheses with better explanatory hypotheses.

            Science can be roughly defined as the elimination of possibilities.  Scientific investigation has dispelled “old-wives” tales, magic, superstition, and wild speculation regarding the causes of phenomena in the natural world.

            These are some of the key questions in our current modern age, as Christian faith and the investigative field of science begin to coalesce from different angles to reach some final answers.


[1] Fossil Discontinuities: Refutation of Darwinism & Confirmation of Intelligent Design—Gunter Bechly, published Oct. 11, 2018 on You Tube by FOCLOnline.

[2] Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (Chevy Chase: Adler & Adler, 1985), 308-325. 

[3] See on the Internet Moravec’s Paradox – Why are machines so smart, yet so dumb? On Up and Atom published July 8, 2019, and The Essence of Calculus, sections one and two, describing change over time and the concept of limits, in 3Blue 1 Brown.

Mass/Energy and Information 3

            The present is the key to understanding the past.

               The great geologist Charles Lyell in the 1820’s provided the general methodology for doing research in what are now called the historical sciences.  This involves making reasonably accurate inferences about the past by studying what occurs in the natural world today. 

            Times past are not accessible to direct observation except from photographs, audio recordings, motion pictures, and by peering into deep outer space through a telescope of past events that occurred millions or billions of years ago in the distant universe.

            The present-day understanding of molecular biochemistry is due in large part to the unraveling of DNA through the ten-year long Human Genome Project.

            Complimentary advancements in computers and computer programs over this same period now enable biochemists to study in living cells what are called developmental gene regulatory networks (DGRNs). 

            These DGRNs, along with other epigenetic factors (factors other than DNA) instruct the molecular machines inside cells to assemble different cell-types and then tells them specifically where to go in the developing embryos of tens of millions of living species. 

This then produces such diverse organisms as elephants, lions, hawks, the common housefly, and human beings.

            The material properties of the typewriter keys, the ink ribbon, and the sheets of paper that translate the abstract creative storytelling from the mind of the book writer into the physical medium of paper and ink, is an easily understood reality today. 

This is closely analogous to the translating of the abstract creative information from the genetic code in DNA into the material flesh-and-bones of living organisms.

            Scientists correctly study the material mechanics of the processes taking place inside living cells. 

            Using Charles Lyell’s methodology for the historical sciences, we can now make reasonably accurate inferences going back in time regarding the increasing complexity of life-forms on earth following the gradually linear addition of differing new cell-types. 

            These new and different cell-types support increasingly more complex architectural body-plans[1].

            But in the same way that the physics and chemistry of how ink bonds to paper will not explain the inspired artistic creation of the fictional murder mystery story itself, a complete understanding of the nanotechnology occurring within living cells will not explain the creation of the material parts of flesh-and-bones coordinating together into the functional coherence of an architectural body-plan.

            Understanding the material mechanics of the molecular nanotechnology in the cell will not explain the adult instinctual lifestyle habits of a charging African bull elephant chasing lions away from a watering hole.

            Developmental gene regulatory networks and epigenetic factors now tell us how different cell-types are constructed on-schedule and in the proper sequence from the DNA code, and then sent-off to their specific xyz-coordinate locations in their unique body-plans, during embryonic development. 

            But there is also another source of information that matches flesh and bones with extremely fine-tuned lifestyle habits. 

This other information specifies for successful function within differing past geological eras, within the interrelated biodiversity of predator/prey relationships, and within the unimaginable complexity of diverse ecosystems. 

This might be compared to the sophisticated blend of physical reactions and mental acuities to be able to safely navigate driving an automobile on the freeways of Southern California.

            Like Charles Lyell’s program of studying the present to understand the past in geology, we now today have a large part of the understanding of the molecular biochemical processes in living organisms that can be extrapolated back in time to help unravel the mystery of how we arrived at the vast diversity of life today.

            During a particular season every year in Africa functional baby elephants are born.  This is just one amongst enumerable examples of the present-day life-forms we can scientifically study, working backwards through the embryonic development phase to chromosomes, DNA, and physical traits.

            In other words, science today has an enormous sample-size of finished products in the form of ten-million living species types to study. 

            This allows molecular biochemists to work in reverse through the complex architectural body-plans and lifestyle habits of mature functioning organisms, to be able to track the progressive trajectory of the initial genetic information contained in the paired chromosomes of the male and female parents from developing embryo to mature adulthood.

            In plain language, we know that the material mechanisms in operation inside living cells can take abstract creative information and translate it into actual organisms that can grow, survive, and reproduce, because we see these varied and diverse life-forms all around us in live-action.

            The challenge since Darwin in the scientific field of biology is to figure-out how this all works.

            But the worldview of scientific materialism that attempts to reduce the charge of a full-grown African bull elephant to its flesh and bones material parts is as illogically nonsensical as saying that the book And Then There Were None can write itself.

            The reality of the universe is too rich to be the product of purely materialistic causations.

            Science cannot exclude agency and still attempt to reach full explanation. 

            Mass/energy is not a sensible substitution for agency in the creation of information.  The creative origin of information cannot be reduced by narrow ideology to material mass/energy causations alone.

            One of the themes of this book is that no matter where the current research in the field of molecular biochemistry finally lands in terms of a more complete understanding of the material mechanismsin living cells, the complexity of these molecular systems has already left the mindless and undirected program of naturalistic materialism miles behind.

            Intelligent agency is required at the front-end to furnish the complex and specified information needed inside living cells to produce over time the vast diversity of material life we see in the natural world. 

            This information is also required to produce the abstract and intangible end-point functions that differentiate between the instinctual lifestyle habits of an elephant, lion, leopard, cheetah, zebra, wildebeest, water buffalo, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and giraffe…to name some of the large mammals in Africa.

            This is similar to the distinct and discrete information expressed through differing literary genres.

            Returning to Agatha Christie producing purely abstract information at the front-end of the story-writing process, this creative information then morphs through the required transitional phase of the material mediums of ink, paper, and the finished print form into a physical book. 

            But then this same information expresses itself to the book reader as again the creative storyline of the murder mystery that Agatha Christie purposely intended, as the intelligent designing agent.

            One contention made by Christian theists today is that the God of the Bible introduced all of the material mass/energy and the non-material laws of physics, chemistry, and mathematics in the first split-seconds of the creation of the universe at the Big Bang. 

            The creativity behind the incredible functionality of the force of gravity, the speed of light, and the expansion rate of the universe…to my thinking is also therefore capable of inputting all of the genetic information, the assembly instructions, and the timetable schedules of unfolding complexity released inside living cells, to produce the remarkable material mechanisms now being studied by molecular biochemists.

            I need to say here at the outset of this book that I am not a theistic evolutionist, and I am not a deist.  I am an old-earth, day/age creationist. 

            Having worked in building construction as a career, I am skeptical of complex things falling into place on their own. 

            This would then especially apply to living organisms that must be up-and-running with operational function in-place within the narrow demands of ecological and biodiverse niches, entering into life in the “fast-lane” at the leading-edge of their well-defined essences just to be able to grow to adulthood, survive, and to reproduce.

            To my thinking, the informational package within living cells beginning 3.8-billion years ago has the preprogrammed agenda to pump-out increasing complexity starting with the single-cell bacteria, by adding new and different blocks of cell-types in grouped clusters over time, to support new and innovative architectural body-plans.

            But the addition of new and different blocks of cell-types in grouped clusters to produce incremental steps of mature function, cannot occur through Darwinian macroevolution, but requires a designing agent possessing targeted foresight.


[1] On the Origin of Phyla—Interviews with Dr. James Valentine, by Access Research Network, published on Oct. 22, 2014, on You Tube.

Mass/Energy and Information 2

            Science has revealed that information transcends above the material medium.

            The actual writing of a new murder mystery novel changes character as Agatha Christie puts her ideas down on paper, making the fundamental transition from the abstract and intangible nature of informational ideas to the physical materials of paper and ink. 

            The interesting observation here is that the letters, words, punctuation marks, spaces, paragraphs, and book chapters could be on any subject.  It could be a murder mystery, foreign-agent suspense thriller, romantic comedy, historical biography, or a cookbook filled with recipes.

            The mediums of the ink and paper, the ones and zeros of the laptop computer word-processing code, and the English language are entirely indifferent and neutral as to the genre category of the information being presented.

            The material medium does not dictate or guide the outcome, but is merely the means for expression.

            But then another interesting transition takes place. 

After the murder mystery novel is completed and enters the published book phase, physical print copies now sit on shelves in bookstores waiting for someone like me to see it in its material form, buy it, and take it home to read.

            Then another amazing thing happens. 

            I open up the physical book and begin to read the text in the form of letters arranged as words and sentences in the English language, and the information that Agatha Christie created has passed through the material medium of ink on paper to become once again information that is the engrossing murder mystery that keeps me up reading late into the night, the who-done-it story And Then There Were None.    

            Without hitting this nail on the head too many times, this recognition of the fundamental essence of creative information in literary fiction writing has huge implications for a more accurate and up-to-date scientific understanding of the causal mechanisms behind the phenomena in the natural world.

            The non-material nature of information should tell both professional scientists and laymen like me that a purely materialistic worldview of the universe, absent the input of creative agency, is unnecessarily and illogically limited. 

            The organized complexity of the system of information that comprises a murder mystery story is not the same thing as that same story in physical print form in a book I can hold in my hands.

            The abstract and intangible creative thought behind the murder mystery story is not the same as the hands and fingers of Agatha Christie physically typing-out the story day-by-day using the materials of ink and paper.

            This seems to me to be a workable analogy to the material universe we study through science, and the abstract, non-material information this research reveals.

            Agatha Christie could just as easily tell her murder mystery story verbally to a small group sitting around a camp-fire, maybe over the course of two or three nights, in a shorter abbreviated and abridged version.

            Scientifically studying how our throats and mouths form the individual sounds of the words of human speech, how these sounds are carried as sound-waves across the distance of seemingly empty space to another person, and how our ears instantly translate these words/sounds into intelligible information within our minds is simply another material medium for passing along information.

            This scientific, fact-based information understood today in terms of the hard physics and chemistry of speech, sound, and hearing will still not explain the creative mental ingenuity that can invent a new suspense-filled murder mystery story from scratch out-of-nothing.  

            Telling the story verbally merely uses the mediums of speech, sound-waves, and hearing instead of paper and ink.

            But the distinctive thought-process is still the same mystery. 

            Its origin still has no material explanation in terms of the basic question of where does information come from in the first-place.

            Information by definition is abstract and non-material.  Mass/energy by contrast is physical and material.  

            Information and intelligent agency go together.

            Mass/energy is incapable of creating information, because mass/energy does not possess the ability to think.

            The worldview of scientific materialism is illogically limited because it attempts to tell modern audiences that And Then There Was None typed itself.  Scientific materialism illogically postulates that it did not need the intelligent agent Agatha Christie as the dynamic explanation of its origin.

            The independent yes/no feature of targeted brilliance has to come from somewhere other than material causations.

            This is ingeniously and concisely summarized in the question posed by some modern physicists in this Age ofInformation: Is the universe it before bit, or bit before it?[1]

            In this question, it is material in the form of mass/energy.  Bit is non-material in the form of the “bits” of ones and zeroes comprising the information in computer software language code.

            Did mass/energy come first before information, or did information come first followed by mass-energy?

            Did Agatha Christie conceive of her murder mystery book in her mind before it became typed words and sentences?

            That some combination of material objects like a typewriter, laptop computer, paper, and ink could create a murder mystery book on their own…without a mind…is inconceivable.

            The narrative can be spun to seemingly support the notion that the functionality of the mind/brain can be reduced to its material parts.

            But the transcendent feature of the independence that can navigate through the innumerable “yes” choices and “no” rejections to reach the end-point outcomes of specified function, argues compellingly that the sophisticated complexity of the thought-processes of the human mind/brain exists above the material mediums of quarks, atoms, and neural network connections alone.


[1] John Lennox: Socrates in the City in Labastide, France Part 1, published Jan. 12, 2018 on You Tube.

The Cambrian Explosion…and the Abraham Explosion 2

            The sudden appearance of the highly sophisticated and complex information contained in the life-script of Abraham, created the novel and innovative concept of God displacing our plans with His higher ways and thinkingthrough a life-script inserted into our lives. 

            This can accurately be called the Abraham Explosion in relation to the similar occurrence 535-million years ago in the natural world during the Cambrian Explosion.

            These two events are similar in that they represent a top-down, actualized manifestation of complex information having functional coherence[1] coming suddenly into existence in a moment of time without evolutionary, gradual progression.

            An Abraham Explosion could not occur in a past geological era, because human beings are the only known living organisms that possess the capacity for intellectual and moral reasoning.

            A key outcome of a journey of faith following God for Old Testament Jews of faith and for New Testament Christians in the early church and today, is that we are supposed to be able to look back in reflection at some point in time about the course and direction of our lives. 

            We should be able to say in hindsight: “God knew what He was doing in guiding and directing my life, better than I could possibly have known about or orchestrated on my own.  He led me through a narrow path that was right and correct, in a way I could not have foreseen or anticipated ahead of time.”

            This concept is categorically different from human fiction-writing.

            The suspense-filled story endings for Jack Ryan, Jason Bourne, Jack Reacher, James Bond, Tom Sawyer, Elizabeth Bennett, and even for Sidney Carton in Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities are that they knew what they were doing, that theyresolved their particular conflict through human ingenuity, persistence, technology, and the application of their unique talents or their unique positions at the time.

            The Bible is the only work of literature in all of history that has stories with endings that resolve with the realization that God knew and knows what He is doing.

            Through the recent discovery in this new Age of Information, that the natural world is filled with complex, specified, and coherently integrated systems of information, this now clearly exhibits the realization that the Intelligent Designer of the natural world, knew and knows what He is doing.

            In creating living organisms and non-living material things, God displays skill far and away above anything that we can manufacture.

            This now makes the leap from science to theology that closes the gap between science and biblical-quality faith, a hypothetical gap that should never have been fabricated.

            We now understand both in the natural world through science and in the composition of the biblical narrative stories of faith the modern fact-based evidence that God correctly knows what He is doing in everything.

            God is a bridge that we can safely cross from the concrete material realities of the natural world to the abstract thought of precisely how human beings created in the image of God, can best conduct our lives at the peak of intellectual and moral reasoning.

            The connecting of the dots between the natural world, and the biblical narrative stories of faith, both equally display the brilliance of God.

            This dovetails with the idea that after living a journey of faith within our God-composed life-script, after the pattern given in the biblical narrative stories of faith, we can look back in hindsight and conclude that God knew what He was doing. 

            God knew what He was doing long before our own personal story-endings bring to light the foresight of God, having set us early and punctually on-time upon a course that made our life-scripts beneficial to ourselves and to others, having well-defined purpose, meaning, dignity, and worth.

            That God’s ways and thoughts are higher than ours, now connects beautifully and seamlessly with the entirely secular field of science, which turns-out after closer inspection, to not be secular and faith-free at all.

            The key point, the central tenet in the biblical narrative stories of faith is that God displaces our ways with Hishigher ways for the highest, noblest, and most unselfishly love-filled reasons. 

            God composes life-scripts for us that we can willingly enter into through the narrow gate of faith, precisely because He alone possesses the best ways of doing things at the peak and the pinnacle of perfect precision.

            Today’s Christians should no longer be suspicious of science.  The truth of the existence of complex, specified, and coherently integrated systems of information in the natural world, now eliminates the plausibility of naturalistic explanations for the origin and operation of the phenomena in the living and non-living natural world.

            This provides our modern culture with a sharp U-turn to the pre-Darwin period where belief and unbelief were balanced between moral, metaphysical decisions…unweighted by atheistic materialism falsely claiming the support of science on its side.


[1] Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition That Life is Designed (with Dr. Douglas Axe), published Nov. 26, 2016 by Apologetics Academy on You Tube.

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