By Accident or Design?

A fundamental axiom of Darwinism…that the brilliance of functional organization and the originality of creativity we see in the biological world…is an accident without purpose or meaning…is in part motivated simply to be able to include the scientific field of biology within the strict, paradigm boundaries of naturalistic explanations…like the other fields of scientific investigation.

Because the living world appears to be many times more complicated than the non-living world…to the casual observer the living world therefore appears more obviously to be the product of design…to be the product of intelligent foresight, skilled guidance, engineering acumen, and artistic good sense.

To the casual observer…trying to fit the natural living world into the philosophical worldview of naturalistic materialism…is like trying to put a large square peg into a small round hole.

Darwinism fails to attract more than a small percentage of the general population because of the fundamental disconnect between the incredible marvels of the natural world that we observe with our own eyes…and the absurdly simplistic and counter-intuitive notion that this is all an accident…having no ultimate purpose or meaning beyond the present.

The extension…the extrapolation…from the commendable scientific study of natural phenomenon…that shouts-out for design…to atheism…is as nonsensical as the unsupported leap from micro to macro evolution.

Neither macroevolution…nor atheism…follows logically or “naturally” from the evidentiary facts of natural phenomenon.

What is missing from the modern scientific database is precisely how God created…how He manufactured our living and non-living world.

We do not have an Owner’s Manual to our planet, our solar system, or to the cosmos.

God has not provided us with a technical manual on how He designed and assembled the living and non-living world…no more than Mercedes Benz, Ferrari, or Lamborghini would tell us in precise details how they manufactured their cars.

Scientists who are atheists…who are naturalistic materialists…incorrectly assume that by admitting an intelligent designer God into the overall equation…that this somehow will limit the extent of the investigative reach of scientific research…by accepting an undefinable and indeterminable limit at some natural/supernatural demarcation line.

But the limits to our investigative reach using the methods of scientific research may have natural limits imposed by the nature of the phenomenon itself.

We have certainly…by general accounts…hit a snag in the origin-of-life research program…recognizing that the complexity of going from non-living matter to the “simplest” form of single-cell organisms such as primitive bacteria starting in the Precambrian Period at around 3.8 billion years ago…is a bridge too far to cross…without an explanation for the input of the massive quantity and quality of information that has to be arranged in a coordinated package…for life to begin.

Should God be accused of hoarding critical information…of setting reasonable limits and boundaries around the access to His means-and-methods of creation…to exercise His fiduciary responsibility to protect the proprietary copyright and patent rights to His inventive creations?

When the book of Genesis in the Bible records: “And God said…let there be…this or that”…bringing into existence something by His word alone…without further explanation or details…does the inquisitive nature of human scientific investigation require that God give to us the methodology of His creative techniques…in addition to the already expansive and extensive parameters He has provided for our investigation into the living and non-living world?

Even if we could understand the creation of the universe in terms of absolute mathematics, physics, and chemistry…do we really expect God to tell us the techniques and technology of creation…when we have already discovered, built, and used the atomic bomb that can wipe-out all human life on earth in a few moments of time?

Do we really want to know the secrets to creating life…in which mankind could then create a host of disastrous living monsters…or manufacture living semi-human soldiers that tyrants could use to control the world…like the clones created for battle in the Star Wars movies?

Are there justifiably rational limits to what God could responsibly hold back…in terms of absolute knowledge…that if revealed would clearly make the irrefutable case for His existence…but on the flip-side would expand our capacity to allow for greater evil to exist than is already possible?

One of the subtle arguments for design in the living and non-living world…that does not get as much recognition and discussion as it should…yet is presented several times in this book…is the incredible match between the orderliness and intelligibility of natural phenomenon…and our intellectual capacity to investigate, understand, and organize into distinct categories of knowledge…the complexities of the natural world…as covered in an earlier essay.

To the casual observer…this does not seem like something that would simply fall into place on its own.

The natural world…orderly and intelligible to humans alone…places the search for truth on the highest plane of intended purpose and premeditated forethought.

Mountain of Evidence is Theoretically Driven 2

An analogy to an Olympics track meet might be helpful.

In the Olympics track meet competition, one event…the historical length…mile-relay…has four runners per team each running one lap around the track…receiving the baton from the previous runner and passing the baton to the succeeding runner…to complete a continuous and unbroken four-lap circuit around the track.

But this relay baton is not passed off to the other distinct and unconnected events outside of the mile-relay.  The baton is not passed to the high-jumpers, pole-vaulters, high-hurdlers, 100-meter sprinters, or the competitors in the shot-put or javelin throw…thereby creating an unnatural, artificial, and unwanted connection between these disparate events.

These other events are discontinuous and unconnected to each other and to the mile-relay, even though they are all a common part of the Olympics track meet.

A network schedule of logic-lines connecting the start-times for each track and field event…simplified into printed program schedules for the spectators…would have to be created ahead of time to organize the track meet.

But these organizational lines connecting the start and the finish times between the individual events…head-to-tail…would never be confused with the fundamental differences between pole-vaulting, high-jumping, the long-jump, the triple-jump, and the 5,000-meter (the historical length 3-mile) run.

The essential characteristic of each distinct event creates a discontinuous gap between each event that is unbridgeable in terms of mixing and blending…other than their logical sequencing for start-times and spacing within the overall management of the track-meet competition.

The passing of the baton between all of the track and field events to create an artificial connection…a connection that does not logically exist…simply because at a general level all these events belong to the same track-meet…would be nonsensical.

To attempt to blend and mix all of these disparate track and field events together into a connected whole through small, incremental, transitional phases using the relay baton as the connecting link…would be a forced arrangement falling so far outside of the intentionally designed, fundamentally discontinuous gaps between each of the individual events of an athletic track meet…as to render the entire competition gradualistically intermixed…hopelessly indecipherable…and thus incomprehensible.

If all of the track meet events were blended together in infinitesimally small incremental steps…it would be difficult to determine when and where one event finished and another started.

Each track and field event also has a predetermined goal…an outcome…that entails a different “lifestyle habit” program of training and technique.

Even though running hurdles, the pure sprints, and the long-distance running events share similarities, they are vastly different in their “lifestyle habits” of length of distance, agility requirements, pure speed, endurance, time-span, and the physical characteristics of the competitors.  Specified function…running fast, leaping high, jumping far…are inseparably connected to the lifestyle habits unique to each athletic event.

Darwinian common descent must, by definition, have the relay batons at each branching node of the ever-expanding tree of life…passed safely from one species to the next without falling to the ground (becoming extinct).

But fitness in “lifestyle habits” in each track-meet event does not carry over into fitness in lifestyle habits in another event.  The Olympic gold medalist in the high-jump cannot pass along gold metal technical proficiency to the pole-vaulter simply by handing off a relay baton.

The relay baton in this instance would be a nonsensical addition…inapplicable to both high-jumper and pole-vaulter.

The gold metal “lifestyle habit” proficiencies in each event are too different and discontinuous to be connected by the unrelated, unhelpful element of a relay baton.

The tautological statement that the fittest organisms will produce the most offspring…the fittest organism being defined by circular reasoning as being the one that produces the most offspring…stays entirely within the boundary-lines of a single, track- meet event like high-jumping.

It describes the proficiency level attained through the microevolution of that single track meet event of high-jumping.

Macroevolution…hypothetically producing diversity (in our track-meet analogy) has absolutely nothing to do with the gold metal high-jumper passing the relay baton to the pole-vaulter.

How the high-jumper reaches gold metal proficiency…fitness in lifestyle habits…has no correlation to reaching an equivalent level of technical proficiency in the entirely different track meet event of pole-vaulting…although they each share the similar goal of going as vertically high as they can.

To functionally train for both the pole-vault and high-jump events…to obtain dual proficiencies…a program of transitional “crossover” conditioning and training techniques would be an obvious regime in preparation for competing in these two events…at the same track meet.

We should expect to see the same obvious crossover transition at both the bottom portion entering into each branching node in the tree-of-life …and coming out the top portion of each node…according to common descent.

Identifying fictional nodes in Darwin’s tree of life…in the physical characteristics side of the equation alone…using creative imagination, would not explain the diversity of lifestyle habits for the tens of millions of living species on earth.

This would only get us half-way there.

Simply identifying where and when during the track-meet the high-jumper passed the relay baton to the pole-vaulter…would not explain the vast differences in gold metal “lifestyle habit” techniques between these two events.

The architectural body-plans and lifestyle habits…observable in the “track meet” in-the-wild…are widely different for lions, leopards, and cheetahs.

Did lions, leopards, and cheetahs evolve from a common ancestor?  The philosophical leap to common ancestry…due to the similarities between these three “big cats” is irresistible.

Yet did it actually happen this way?  Do we know this for sure?

The body-plans, lifestyles, and performance dissimilarities between lions, leopards, and cheetahs are so different and discontinuous…that the mere introduction of a relay-race baton connecting them at a hypothetical ancestral node in the long-ago past…does not explain the brilliant creative imagination that defines the unique essence of each of these big cats.

These unique dissimilarities must be in-place at their original inception near the first branching event from lion to leopard to cheetah…close to the ancestral node…or conversely…we can chalk their brilliantly unique existence to blind, mindless, unguided, accidental trial-and-error…falling into place according to random-chance luck.

But then we must consistently apply this concept to all living organisms.  Do finches, ducks, and eagles share a common ancestor?

Again, the philosophical pull toward common ancestry is irresistible.

But where is the line drawn?  When we get to the large classification groupings…the discontinuous gaps between the phyla divisions are as wide apart as the Grand Canyon.

Darwinian macroevolution…based upon naturalistic materialism…would have us believe that all living things today came from a single ancient ancestor.

But this requires an unimaginable quantity and quality of creative brilliance in crafting the unique lifestyle habits that accompany every distinct architectural body-plan.

This requires us to imagine Mother Nature sitting at the designer’s drafting table with an overhead magnifying lamp, tee-squares and triangles, sharpened pencils and erasers…yet being blind and mindless…scribbling endlessly in a probabilistically hopeless random-chance search strategy…for the most complex, specified, and coherently integrated systems of information that comprise every living organism on earth…and the varied ecological systems to support them.

This is a part of the illogic of the tree-of-life of Darwinian common descent.  The empirical relay baton of explanatory mechanism must connect each discontinuity gap between-the-dots being birds, fish, mammals, insects, reptiles, amphibians, plants, trees, bacteria, and fungi…which are analogous to discontinuous track and field events like pole-vaulting, discus throwing, high-jumping, and the mile-relay.

These connections between hundreds of billions of distinct (and thus classifiable by human taxonomists) life-forms must account for both physical and lifestyle characteristics.

The discontinuous lifestyle habits of the multitudes of living creatures renders the hypothetical “relay baton” connection through common descent to be implausibly forced, stretched, and logically unbridgeable.

            Naturalistic materialism is the philosophy that superimposes an unnatural “relay baton” to connect all of the track meet events. 

Naturalism creates the evidence that supports naturalism.  This is circular.  Take away the common descent interpretational framework and we are back in time to the neutral facts of pre-1859…the “standard Olympics track meet” of typological and discontinuous life-forms…which did not point toward macroevolution at all, prior to Darwin’s book The Origin of Species.

Mountain of Evidence is Theoretically Driven 1

What is critical to understand is that the contention by Darwinists that macroevolution has a “mountain of supporting evidence”…thereby establishing the “fact of evolution”…proceeds not from the facts themselves but only materializes (no pun intended) after applying the philosophical framework of naturalistic materialism over the biological facts in nature. 

The common descent viewpoint when stretched to fit over all living things can produce a tentative, provisional mountain of evidence in support of macroevolution…but only if common descent is first assumed to be true.  Common descent will explain the fossil progression from the simple to the more complex over time, the homology (similarities) in design between creatures, and the biological distribution of similar creatures split apart by continents.

But intelligent design, based upon the empirical evidence of highly specified information and integrated complexity…explains this natural phenomenon better.  Intelligent design is a more persuasive and plausible interpretation of the evidence…than is common descent.

Without the hard empirical evidence for the methodology and mechanism of how macroevolution changes a fish into a land reptile into a bird over time…having wings, feathers, and a totally unique breathing capacity to enable sustained flight…the philosophical overlay of Darwinian naturalism does not produce “overwhelming, mutually supportive evidence.”

The Darwinian model produces nothing more than the hypothetically connected structure of common descent…supported by circumstantial arguments alone…whose artificially connected structure falls apart when the concept of the discontinuities between the varied body-plan architectures and lifestyle habits of hundreds of billions of life-forms on the planet…is introduced.

The theoretically unimaginable jump across the gap of running and leaping along the ground or in the branches of trees, then “evolving” into winged flight through small, incremental, progressive steps, without any detailed supporting explanation as to the massive anatomical and lifestyle-habit changes that would have to occur…is alleged by Darwinists to have happened simply because this is what is required to have happened…according to the philosophical paradigm of naturalism.

The theoretically unimaginable jump from the functioning respiratory system of the gills of fish extracting oxygen from water under the surface of oceans, lakes, and rivers, to the fully functioning system of lungs in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals breathing air above the water, must take place in a matter of seconds or immediate death follows.

This is an enormous gap of discontinuity.  Small incremental change here is unimaginable…is unbridgeable…in terms of function…in terms of survival and reproduction.

Yet for macroevolution to be valid, this bridge across discontinuity must be plausibly explainable within the unifying theory of common descent taken from Darwin’s hypothetical “tree of life”…connecting all living things.

Darwinists allege that this type of jump in development and diversity from living underwater to living above water…had to have occurred in small, incremental, progressive steps because it simply had to happen this way according to the paradigm narrative of naturalism.

This type of secularly skewed argumentation is then stretched to apply to the enumerable discontinuities large and small of the tens of millions of different species on the planet, mixing together the dissimilar ingredients of diversity and likeness into the theory of common descent…based in large part upon its appeal to scientists of being a unifying theory of biology, and at the same time offering a non-theistic explanation for the origin and diversity of life.

But from the start Darwinian macroevolution could not explain the Cambrian Explosion…the sudden appearance of a diversity of complex life-forms in an instant of geological time…which should also have had an accompanying and complimentary backstory of transitional intermediate life-forms appearing in the Precambrian rock strata.

Darwinists have also been unable to explain the sudden appearance during the geological era known as the Cretaceous…of the angiosperms…the flowering plants having their seeds enclosed in an ovary…without transitional precursors in the rock strata leading up to this time-period.

Over time, the many difficulties with the theory of macroevolution should have resolved themselves.

Instead, the idea of common descent has not bridged the enormous gaps of discontinuity in the living world between the major groups like amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, insects, or mammals, or the discontinuities in the subdivided lower levels of each of the major groups…like the large African mammals separated by the unbridgeable lifestyle gaps between elephants, giraffes, water buffalo, rhinoceros, zebras, lions, leopards, cheetahs, and Thompson’s gazelles.

One major factual problem for Darwinism is that there is no evidence for the actual existence of the transitional “nodes” at the apex junctures of Darwin’s branching “tree of life” between the major groups and their subdivisions, which must be there for common descent to occur.

These nodes do not exist now and they do not exist in the fossil record…unless artificially created through a fictional, philosophical overlay of common descent crafted through human imagination.

Darwinian evolution is a classic example of being a half-truth.  It explains microevolution which occurs within a species.  It explains variation over time within a species.  But the extrapolation from microevolution to macroevolution…the origination of new species using genetic variation and natural selection…is an over-reach…an extension of philosophy rather than an empirical product of science.

This is why Darwinian macroevolution is subtly persuasive but vacuous.  The “mountain of evidence” is artificially produced through circular reasoning…the philosophy must first be superimposed on the evidence to rescue the philosophy…rather than the evidence itself independently standing on its own to formulate the philosophy.

It is the theory of common descent that connects the dots into the forced linear arrangement of an ascending “tree of life”…the dots do not logically align themselves to connect that way on their own.  The connections between dots are by philosophy…not by explanatory, scientific fact-based evidence.

The Appearance of Stasis

Some evolutionists in their books comment that Christianity held-up the revelation and acceptance of a changing, evolving earth during the 1800’s…leading up to and following Darwin’s groundbreaking The Origin of Species published in 1859…as a result of the biblical concept of a static, unchanging natural world.

This is a classic example of a half-truth.

There are no verses in the Bible that state that the earth is static and unchanging.  The Bible is silent on this subject.

The Bible does say that God is eternal, timeless, and unchanging…but says nothing definitive about the change-status of His creations over time…living or non-living in the natural world.

There was a consensus of opinion prior to 1859 amongst scientists, Christians, and the general public…that the universe and our earth are static and unchanging…because that is how the natural world phenomenally appears to people then and now today…change that is nonexistent when viewed within the span of our lifetimes.

A huge point to be made here regarding the various fields of scientific exploration…is that the orderliness and intelligibility of the natural world…intelligible to humans alone…has been in-place and fully functional on earth for 4.8 billion years since its beginning…waiting for the technological inventions of new types of equipment…and the populating of the earth of intellectually and morally capable beings self-motivated to conduct honest investigations into the explanations of the phenomenon in the natural world…which spawned the Scientific Revolution starting four or five hundred years ago.

One basic acknowledgement about the advancements of the modern Scientific Revolution…that can reasonably be made…is that the interaction of the two Industrial Revolutions and the Scientific Revolution propelled the creation of new fields of science…that were not possible hundreds and thousands of years earlier…due to the lack of equipment not invented yet to conduct in-depth scientific investigations.

The invention of eyeglasses, the telescope, the microscope, calculus in mathematics, the chemistry periodic table of elements…along with enumerable other technological innovations leap-frogging ahead of and then catching-up with each advancement in the sciences…explains more accurately the modern revisions in outlooks and biased prejudices that were shared equally by scientists, theists, and the general public.

One interesting example of this is the difficulty that Albert Einstein struggled with in his field equations regarding general relativity in 1916…that produced either an expanding or a contracting universe…a non-static universe that is not eternal and unchanging…a concept so disturbing to Einstein’s prejudicial bias favoring an unchanging and eternal universe…that he added a cosmological constant of repulsion to his equations to counteract the attraction of gravity…a decision influenced by his prejudicial bias for a static and unchanging universe…that overpowered his confidence in the accuracy of his own mathematical equations…a decision he later called “the greatest mistake of my life.”

If the static and unchanging appearance of the natural world was and is a universal observation…which rendered the acceptance of the revolutionary new concept of the expansion or the contraction of the universe…of being this strongly abhorrent observationally to one of the greatest scientists and thinkers in human history…what does this have to say about the Darwinist’s claims today that the natural world observationally exhibits enough obvious change to support macroevolution…exhibits enough change to assert that macroevolution is an obvious fact.

As I look out at the natural world today…I do not see radical change that would argue for macroevolution as scientific fact.

Without Einstein’s general theory of relativity, Hubble’s observation of an expanding universe, and the discovery of the uniform background radiation by Penzias and Wilson…the only thing that would tell me the universe had a beginning in time…is Genesis 1:1 in the Bible:

“In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.”

I certainly could not deduce a beginning of the universe through phenomenal eyes-only observation alone…but like Edwin Hubble being able to look through the 100-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory…I would also need a background in astrophysics to be able to understand what I was looking at…to be able to draw the correct conclusions from the data I was observing.

Without the key contribution of the three-volume book-set published in 1830-33 by Charles Lyell entitled: Principles of Geology…having the full subtitle of: “Being an attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth’s surface, by reference to causes now in operation”…we would have absolutely no reason to take a harder look at the incorrect interpretation of Bible scriptures that…in my opinion…erroneously combines the seven days of creation into a single earth week…producing an apologetically indefensible young-age earth that undermines Christian evangelism across the world.

My point here is that the orderliness and intelligibility of the natural world…intelligible to human beings alone…in existence and in full-operation for the entire duration of the 4.8 billion years of the life of our planet Earth…when applied through the methodology of scientific investigation coupled with technological inventions…to create the new immerging fields of scientific inquiry…produced new discoveries that in most if not all cases took everyone by surprise…even scientists like Albert Einstein who appear to “stumble” upon discoveries like an expanding universe…that they themselves did not see coming.

If we want to indict and criticize Christians for “slow-walking” the concept of a changing earth that inhibited acceptance of macroevolution according to some Darwinists…then we can also include the whole of scientific investigation that sometimes takes decades or longer to confirm a particular new theory…and include the general public that even up to our present-day observe no radical change in the natural living and non-living worlds.

Einstein back-tracking on his own field equations…in 1916 pointing toward an expanding or contracting universe that leads to a beginning creation point in time…gives us a remarkable insight into the accepted wisdom that permeated modern societies through the first decades of the twentieth-century…that our natural world appears static and unchanging…even if it is not.

This undermines and refutes the notion that macroevolutionary change is so profuse and prolific that it is visually obvious…and excuses Christians, many scientists, and the general public at that time following 1859…for not immediately going along with the concept of biological macroevolution…and that still to this day is one of the observational, commonsense reasons why microevolution is accepted by the general public…but the theoretical extrapolation to macroevolution is still highly controversial and unproven.

The Unified Theory of Everything Regarding the Purpose and Meaning of Human Life 2

If Darwinists can look the other way…can marginalize this phenomenon while at the same time using it as the pillars of their scientific enterprise…this demonstrates the power of worldview and confirmation bias to look straight at the evidence for design in this uncanny match between orderliness and intelligibility in nature…and the complementary human capacity to comprehend phenomenon in the natural world…and yet still attempt to explain it away through the impersonal forces of mindless, indifferent, random-chance, trial-and-error processes…that must blindly fall into place by accident…this is to me an inconsistent and nonsensical view of reality.

Naturalistic materialism could never get the two tunnels to meet in the center of the mountain…without enumerable Swiss-cheese holes in the mountain that would be obvious to all intelligent observers today…scientists and laymen alike.

The natural world today reveals a living and non-living world that is the diametric opposite of a mountain having a myriad of crisscrossing drilled holes attempting to reach center through random trial-and-error…never producing the connection between human scientific investigation…and nature…that is clearly and irrefutably the reality we see and experience today…that forms the basis for scientific investigation.

The materialistic worldview of a universe consisting of only particles and energy…that could after 13.7 billion years following the start of the physical universe in the massive explosion of the Big Bang…self-assemble into a reality that could bring orderliness and intelligibility into association with human intellectual capacity…in the remarkable way that it has developed…is a materialistic viewpoint far too simplistic to explain this reality.

That orderliness and intelligibility would be so fine-tuned and have such a well-defined bandwidth…to match the equally narrow definition of the human intellectual capacity, innate curiosity, and the incredible independence and transcendence above and outside of nature to craft “why” expeditions in search of the explanations of the causations of the phenomenon in the natural world…is an overwhelming piece of evidence that resides at the most fundamental level in all of science.

Whether scientists like the God of the Bible or not…is not the point.  Science itself points toward design.

The Designer of this universe is an architect, engineer, and artist of mind-stretching command of a quantity of information that taken as a whole is complex, specified, and coherently integrated at a level and to an extent that goes well beyond mere words to describe.

To chalk this up to random-chance, trial-and-error is as blindly unscientific as is imaginable.

It would be one thing if the natural world was orderly and intelligible…and none of its living inhabitants could ponder and appreciate this fact.

It would be quite another thing if humans had the intellectual capacity to scientifically investigate the natural world…but the natural world was not orderly or intelligible.

The same orderliness and intelligibility that dovetails with our capacity for intellectual and moral reasoning…the universe and the natural world ordered in such as way as to be open and amenable to scientific exploration…is the same orderliness and intelligibility that makes a God-composed journey of faith life-script possible.

Our ancient or modern cultural environment shapes our worldview on politics, economics, and survival.

            God-composed journey of faith life-scripts create the context of events to revolutionize our outlook on everything…in a timeless fashion relevant to human life today.

What is the political and socio-economic outlook of Abraham?  It was displaced by a new God-composed journey of faith life-script that transcends above worldly conventional normalcy and thinking…when Abraham received his calling to leave the city of Haran in the north…and to walk south to Canaan the Land of Promise.

This book is written for Christians.

The biblical narrative stories of faith are radically different from the appeals to the deities to help with the agricultural crops and trees, sheep and cattle herds, large families of healthy children…that formulate and motivate the invention of the ancient fertility religions.

The God-composed journey of faith life-scripts in the Bible aim for another motivation outside and above worldly conventional normalcy and thinking…that change the context and environment to an elevated theme that transcends above the American Dream concerns…ancient and modern…regarding survival, prosperity, and security (Lk. 12:21, 30).

The connection between the orderliness and intelligibility of the natural world…intelligible to humans alone…applies equally to the capacity to follow a God-composed journey of faith life-script…that is the rough equivalent to the uniform theory of everything…sought in modern physics today.

The Unified Theory of Everything Regarding the Purpose and Meaning of Human Life 1

The current search in modern physics for the unified theory of everything…falls just short of being comprehensive and exhaustive in being able to explain how every particle in the universe interacts with every other particle…because in the central equation within the Standard Model of Particle Physics…up to this point in time…all of the twelve known elementary particles in nature are included…except the force of gravity.

For some unknown reason gravity is the outlier that messes-up the otherwise beautifully functioning equation that describes how atomic particles interact…the force of gravity being the one exception that does not fit within the central equation.

The search for a unified theory of everything in the scientific field of physics…demonstrates how incredibly far the human aptitude for investigation into the workings of the natural world has taken us.

In my opinion…this incredible human aptitude for probative investigation is not confined to the scientific search for truth involving the causations underlying the phenomenon we observe in the natural world…but can also be applied equally well to a unified theory of everything regarding the ultimate purpose and meaning of human life itself.

This search for a unified theory of everything in the field of theological truth-seeking…begins at the starting-point of the orderliness and intelligibility of the natural world…orderly and intelligible to humans.

The dual pillars of orderliness and intelligibility…basic and foundational for the practice of scientific investigation…are not intelligible to lions, giraffes, wildebeests, elephants, whales, dolphins, eagles, or horses.

The natural world is orderly and intelligible to humans alone.

This is like tunneling for miles from the opposite sides of a large mountain…hoping the two tunnels will meet in the center.

Humans possess the transcendent capacity for intellectual curiosity, moral reasoning, self-awareness, and the independence to craft pursuits in search of answers to the amazing question of “why” to a myriad of topics in the natural world…plus the fundamental question regarding the purpose and meaning of our existence.

Doesn’t the scientific enterprise boil-down to the search for answers to the fundamental reality of why we are here?

That the orderliness and intelligibility of the natural world…and the human intellectual capacity to utilize these two pillars of reality to investigate this natural world…should coalesce at a point in time 13.7 billion years after the Big-Bang creation of the universe…in search of answers to the fundamental questions of the purpose and meaning of existence…is not evidence for a blind, mindless, unguided, indifferent, random-chance, trial-and-error mechanism to be the causal-agent explanation for this amazing development…according to the worldview of naturalistic materialism.

On the most fundamental level this amazing development refutes Darwinian macroevolution…because of the utter impossibility for random-chance of any kind to be able to arrange a perfect one-to-one correlation…to meet as opposite tunnels at the center of the mountain…to arrange the intellectual marriage between a natural world that is inexplicably orderly and intelligible…and at this moment in time…intelligible exclusively to human beings alone.

Human beings possess the capacity to be able to benefit from and to take advantage of the innate curiosity and intellectual capacity to unravel the deepest mysteries of nature from the microscopic world of atomic particle physics to the formation of stars and galaxies in the vast universe.

The physical laws governing these phenomenon can often be written in mathematical equation-form to fit on a single piece of paper…eclipsed in simplistic magnificence by the most famous equation having the briefest yet possibly the most profound information regarding energy in the universe: e = mc².

One proposition asserted in this book…is that if this human intellectual capacity could be reduced to a mathematical equation in likeness to e = mc²…it would start by saying: “given that mankind has the mental capacity to engage in a scientific investigation of the natural world…then mankind also has the equivalent mental capacity to comprehend the deepest and most profound moral issues regarding absolute truth…existing in universal and eternal reality.”

My contention here…argued in my other Christian books…is that the intellectual and moral reasoning capacity of humans to correlate one-to-one on an equal engagement with the orderliness and intelligibility in a scientific investigation of the natural world…also applies beautifully and elegantly to the God-composed journey of faith life-scripts elucidated in the Old and New Testaments in the Bible.

This is a contention that transcends above the often misguided and destructive episodes in history when man-invented religions and man-made interpretations of the Bible…descend into the authoritarian tyranny of institutionalized religious establishments…a human fault that has also similarly plagued the advance of progress over the history of the recent centuries comprising the modern Scientific Revolution.

The correlation and integration between the natural world that is orderly and intelligible to humans…coupled with our intellectual and moral-reasoning capacity to fit into this reality perfectly like two matched jigsaw puzzle pieces…places the worldview of naturalistic materialism into the untenable position of having to explain this incredible development using only the tools of a blind, mindless, and accidental mechanism to produce a correlation and integration between two entirely different realities in two unrelated categories…that in actuality is mind-boggling in its precision.

The fact that the one and only group of living things blessed with the capacity to connect with the orderliness and intelligibility components of the natural world…is human beings…comprising the analogy of two shafts tunneled through opposite ends of a massive-sized mountain that near miraculously meets in the middle of the mountain…has its significance and evidentiary value as an irrefutable argument for the most sublime intellectual design imaginable in all of human scientific investigation.

This is scientific fact-based evidence that is out-there in the plainest sight…being coopted and utilized by every scientific field of discovery starting with the centuries-old Scientific Revolution…all the way through the modern science of microscopic, atomic particle physics…to the genetics of DNA…to the search in the reachable cosmos for the signs of other habitable planets and extraterrestrial life-forms.

All of this is based on this extraordinary connection between the orderliness and intelligibility of the natural world matched precisely and solely with the one group of living beings capable of making and taking the opportunity of benefitting from this relationship.

If this isn’t compelling, fact-based scientific evidence for an intelligent designer having a targeted aim so precise, accurate, and premeditated over the eons of time in its original scheme and its eventually successful outcome…then I do not know what is.

This is scientific fact-based evidence of such fundamental quality…that it cannot be detoured around without exposing the most blatant, disqualifying bias for naturalistic materialism…that undermines the decision-making credibility of the scientists and philosophers asserting this worldview.

The Delicate Balance between Belief and Unbelief 3

The premeditated, planned-in-advance, moderated appearances of the resurrected Jesus do not overflow beyond this well-defined boundary-line of faith and trust in another person…in this case faith in Jesus Christ the Son of God…expanded into a universally larger appearance to everyone in Jerusalem…which would then have turned His resurrection into the entirely different zone of being objectively observed empirical fact…of being an impersonal acknowledgment of an otherwise obvious, ordinary fact…like the daily appearance of the noonday sun…conferring no positive spiritual and moral status to professing faith in Jesus Christ…and not being the starting point for entering into a journey of faith following God’s lead.

The grand purpose of this universe and our existence in it…is to discover the character of God through the experience of a personal relationship.

This is part of the elevated capacity that humans possess…of the natural world being orderly and intelligible to us…and equally amazing and privileged to also be able to comprehend God as revealed to us through God-composed journey of faith life-scripts…as patterned in the biblical narrative stories of faith…starting with the life of Abraham…that can be actualized in our lives as well.

The personal, relational aspects of faith and trust in another person…cannot be reduced to material constituents.

Relational faith in another person cannot be placed in a test-tube and heated-up to observe its characteristics.  Personal, relational faith in another person cannot be cooled-down to the temperature it freezes…to determine when it becomes a solid.

After 160 years of intensive scientific research into the creation/evolution debate…the present conclusion is that this incredibly brilliant and insightful investigation conducted by human beings…revealing our highest qualities for intellectual pursuit of truth and our inner moral guidance for honesty in our evaluation of the evidence that we have discovered…reaches a divinely intended philosophical impasse in the study of biological life…and an impasse in the search for answers to the questions of the source of origin of the fundamental reality of who or what is behind it all…as God knew in-advance this would happen in 1859 when macroevolution was first introduced…in a convincing way into the marketplace of ideas.

This leads us to the point of recognizing and acknowledging the surprising presence of this elevated part of the fundamental reality…the delicate balance between belief and unbelief…taking its place alongside the orderliness and intelligibility of the natural world to human beings…both of which are in actuality part of the answers to the questions we seek.

Only the Creator God could and would initiate the fundamental reality of the delicate balance between belief and unbelief…producing the fine-tuned, philosophical stalemate between the two opposing worldviews of creation or evolution…the worldview of creationism based upon giving God the benefit-of-the-doubt to pick-up our cross and follow Him by faith into our created destinies…or the worldview of evolution that limits this worldly experience to autonomous individualism…the hallmark of the philosophy of humanism…relying entirely upon ourselves as junior gods sitting upon the thrones of our lives…according to worldly conventional normalcy and thinking.

This is one of the starting premises of Christians as we view the fields of human scientific research…which in and of itself makes a compelling argument for a reality that transcends above anything that could be produced through the blind and mindless mechanism of materialism.

The natural world belongs equally to everyone…and the orderliness and intelligibility of the natural world…to humans…invites Christians who are scientists, philosophers, and laymen to accept the open invitation to investigate the natural world…God being confident…as its Creator…of our finding ample evidence of complex, specified, and coherently integrated systems of information…that reveal an Intelligent Designer of incredible engineering skills and unsurpassed artistic judgment…in fashioning this environment for life on earth.

On the other side of the coin of the delicate balance between belief and unbelief…macroevolution hits the wall of not being able to progress beyond this delicate balance…because it cannot achieve a completely decisive, empirically objective victory…because it is an untruth…a false narrative…that cannot cross the finish-line of scientific fact-based evidence…unlike other proven fields of scientific research.

The few simple arguments I present at the beginning of this essay…are not like the arguments against the notion that the earth revolves around the sun…debated controversially from Copernicus to Newton…based on two incorrect ideas that wind should be blowing at around 1,000 miles per hour (the 25,000 mile circumference of the earth spinning at one full revolution per a 24-hour day)…and that people should fall-off the surface of the earth at the upside-down, bottom-end of the earth’s rotation.

The hundreds of trillions of unique cell types in a fully grown African elephant is a scientific fact.  The question at the fundamental reality level is what is the source-of-origin of the complex, specified, and coherently integrated information that locates each of these cells in their correct location…and tells them their unique function?

The contention of naturalistic materialism that Mother Nature is capable of performing this…merely creates another man-invented god…materialistic in nature…that could not…nor ever would invade the sacrosanct self-sovereignty of our autonomous individualism.

The obvious fact that all of the unique cell types in our bodies grow together as a coordinated whole-unit…from human adolescence to mature adulthood…does not need the confirmation from science to establish this as scientific fact-based evidence.

Again, the question at the level of the fundament reality…is who or what is the source-of-origin that is capable of coordinating this inconceivably complex communication network…operating flawlessly and free of assembly-line “bugs.”

These and tens, hundreds, or thousands of similar exceptions …to the notion that the blind and mindless naturalism of Mother Nature could step-up into the shoes of being the creative cause behind the vast diversity of life…stops cold the otherwise brilliantly hypothetical extrapolation of Charles Darwin from microevolution extended into macroevolution…at the hard demarcation-line of the delicate balance between belief and unbelief…the zone in which Darwinian evolution can proceed no farther in terms of empirical evidence or worldview philosophy.


Finally, if God is perfect…if He is incapable of bias, error, or bad judgment…and we were created in His image…then we have intrinsic worth and value that is not the case at all in the program of naturalistic materialism.

We cannot have value to an entity that is blind, mindless, indifferent, and uncaring.

If the purpose of our existence in the universe is to experience a journey of faith in order to discover the true character of God (Gen. 3:1-5) through a personal relationship…it is because of a starting-point of our intrinsic value and worth to God.

This is one of the key through-lines running in all of the biblical narrative stories of faith.

The Delicate Balance between Belief and Unbelief 2

What should jump-out at us…is that after 160 years of the most intensive scientific research of the natural world…for answers regarding the fundamental reality of purpose and meaning in the universe…that in the scientific field of studying biological life…we have reached a philosophical/interpretation stand-off in which the raw empirical facts…on their own…can point neutrally in either of the two directions of creation or evolution…resolved only at this late stage in the debate…at this mature point in the Scientific Revolution…by our worldview bias of theism or atheism.

One contention of this book is that this stalemate between two polar opposite views…of fiat creation by an intelligent designer God…or random-chance, evolutionary, step-by-step assemblage by accident through entirely naturalistic means…is by the deliberate intention and premeditated foresight of God.

The introduction of the innovative concept in 1859 in Darwin’s The Origin of Species…asserts that the source for the origin of species and the diversity of life could be a blind, mindless, unguided, indifferent, random-chance, trial-and-error process of small, cumulative, incremental accidents…spread-out over such long periods of time that these changes would be unnoticeable and unobservable during one human lifetime.

That this innovative Darwinian concept…after years of scientific investigation…was destined eventually to run head-on into a philosophical stalemate over the empirical facts producing two polar opposite viewpoints…itself makes the deeply profound case that naturalistic materialism could never be the source-of-origin for this incompatible dichotomy of contrasting viewpoints…intelligently designed fiat creation versus the macroevolution of common descent…as far apart as is imaginable…which surprisingly introduces the new concept of the transcendent existence and quality of a delicate balance between belief and unbelief.

Darwinists look at the anatomical and molecular similarities between the other primates as a group…apes, chimpanzees, and the wide assortment of varied monkeys…and human beings…and see only common descent.

I look at the other primates and human beings…and see a gulf as wide as the Grand Canyon…in terms of the capacity for intellectual and moral reasoning…in terms of unique and different lifestyle habits…that is unbridgeable by the current Darwinian narrative.

This little-known and possibly new concept…that I have termed the delicate balance between belief and unbelief…has been in operation for thousands of years…keeping the open-option available in the decision-making zone regarding the direction of our lives…to be able to choose the route of autonomous individualism…of going our own way in self-sovereignty apart from God…of sitting on the thrones of our lives as junior gods…which is the root of a viable atheism…is the root of the worldview philosophy of humanism…and is the root of a worldly compromised “religious” faith.

These unresolvable differences of opinion at the nuts-and-bolts level in the creation/evolution debate…after 160 years arbitrated only by own worldview bias…exhibits a stalemate that itself pushes-out into the open the correct yet partially hidden answer…waiting to be identified and discovered by humans…that this finely-balanced stalemate could not possibly be the product of a fundamental reality based upon the naturalistic materialism approach that by definition is limited to admitting as valid only that which we can observe, measure, and quantify.

The intricate complexity of arranging hundreds of trillions of different cell-types to create an African elephant…the quantity of the highly specified, instructional information content of DNA that constructs proteins inside living cells…the 40-plus finely-tuned constants contained in the mathematical equations of physics that enables complex life like ourselves to exist in our universe…and the 20-plus conditions regarding our planet earth that make it habitable for the diverse ecologies that define this earth as a privileged planet…these are general arguments…conclusions drawn and inferred from the scientific fact-based evidence…that renders absurd the notion that design should be excluded from the calculus…in the broader search for answers to the fundamental reality of the purpose of our existence.

But for the Darwinists…the nuts-and-bolts evidence that supports their view of common descent…is based upon the same fossil record, the relational similarities between organisms, embryology, vestigial structures, biogeography, and molecular evidence.

There is an ancient question in Christianity: “Why doesn’t God write in large, fiery-flaming letters in the sky that He is the real God…and to worship only Him?”

A similarly profound question can be asked: “Why didn’t Jesus in the first week following His resurrection…walk down the middle of Main Street in Jerusalem and straight into the Temple…demonstrating as objective empirical evidence that He is the divine Son of God, the Messiah, and the Passover Lamb of God atoning sacrifice for mankind’s sins?”

From the Christian viewpoint…the appearances of the resurrected Jesus were finely-tuned and balanced to empower and fuel the rock-solid conviction of the apostles to testify courageously of their eye-witness accounts of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ…to appear to just enough number of people after His resurrection (1 Cor. 15:3-8)…to plant the seeds for the explosive growth of Christianity in the first-century in our modern era.

Yet at the same time the resurrection appearances of Jesus were calculated and moderated…finely-tuned and balanced…so as to leave open the option for the Pharisees, Sadducees, lawyers, scribes, and many of the common people in Israel to continue to exercise unbelief in Jesus as their messiah…to brilliantly confine and limit faith in Jesus Christ as King and Savior…to the personal relationship zone of free-will choice to enter into a journey of faith as patterned by the biblical narrative stories of faith.

The Delicate Balance between Belief and Unbelief 1

Following the 1859 publication of Charles Darwin’s book The Origin of Species…after 160 years of intensive field research looking in the fossil record for missing links that would serve as the transitional intermediate precursors needed in the Precambrian rock strata leading-up to the Cambrian Explosion of 530 million years ago…to support the gradualism of Darwinian macroevolution that “nature makes no sudden leaps”…this search has come up empty.

In the fossil record, there are zero…none…no half-way, transitional intermediate precursors…developmentally leading-up to the exotic new creatures Marrella, Opabinia, Wiwaxia, Hallucigenia, Anomalocaris, Trilobite, and others…new creatures popping-up together, all at once, and fully developed in the explosion of complex new life-forms on earth at the beginning of the Cambrian geological period.

The intensive research likewise looking through the fossil record for the supposed enumerable transitional intermediates that would show a clear pattern of the antecedent nodes…past forks-in-the-road…where developmental branches divide apart into new organisms…depicting again the enumerable linkages expected from the first single-cell bacteria to today’s large land mammals of Africa…and human beings…known as the theory of biological common descent…has also come up empty…other than the developmental changes that occur within discrete and discontinuous species over long periods of time…usually ending in extinction and an exit out of the fossil record.

As I look out at the present natural world…accessible to the general public as never before through nature documentaries on television covering every continent and nearly every location on earth…and countless books in libraries and bookstores showing photographs of representatives of nearly every life-form on the planet…I do not see any animals or plants in mid-point transition…on their way to some future radically different rendition…part-way toward the creation of new phyla types…for example.

Instead, I see all animals and plants…without exception…complete and already perfected in terms of their architectural body-plans and lifestyle habits…which cannot be the case if macroevolution is true.

If macroevolution is true…in 2020…there is no reason for the life-forms on earth to have stopped evolving at this present point in time.  Chaotic change should be apparent everywhere we look in the natural living world…with radical new types popping-up through variant traits being chosen by natural selection…constantly pushing outward and expanding the boundary-lines of the varied ecological systems around the globe.

I do not accept the premise that life is a material thing that can come into being by the chance mixture of the precise combination of organic micro-molecules…that simply fall into place on their own to produce the extremely complex first living organisms of single-cell bacteria…possessing essentially the same DNA informational complexity that supports life today.

I do not think that life can be reduced to a materialistic causation…to be the product of an accidental, random-chance origin through a trial-and-error process.

I do not accept the idea that the precise locational placement of the hundreds of trillions of varied cell types…bone, muscles, tendons, skin, hair, blood veins, internal organs, a long front trunk and two large tusks…in the body-plan of a 23,000-pound African elephant…can initially self-assemble and then maintain its unique essence through new cell replacements throughout its long lifetime…without intelligent design to set-up and manage this process.

I do not think that the varied lifestyle habits of the lion, leopard, and cheetah…have a materialistic causation…that these lifestyle-habits tied to well-defined architectural body-plans…simply fell into place as a response in the reactive-mode to the varied survival opportunities available on the African savanna plains.

Today we do not see lions, leopards, and cheetahs putting-out variant traits that would fill-in the lifestyle habit gaps between these three big cats…producing lions and leopards that could run almost as fast as cheetahs…and cheetahs that are nearly as large in size and as strong as lions…hunting together in coordinated group-attacks to be able to take-down large prey like zebras and wildebeest…in groups of four or five cheetahs…like lions.

In Africa today…we do not see any of these three big cats putting-out new and innovative variant traits that fall outside of the standard list of talents and abilities exhibited by these fully developed, well-defined, and functionally brilliant predators.

In fact…we do not see any of the large mammals of the African savanna plains putting-out variant traits to be chosen by natural selection…that even minimally deviate from the standard and recognized essence that defines each type.

I think that the extraordinary phenomenon of the coordinated growth from adolescence to mature adulthood…with all parts of the human body growing in unison together as a whole-unit…requires an informational instructions package of inconceivably complex coordination that entails not only the commands to each living cell of where to locate and what to do…but also the communication network that integrates the growth of the entire body as one-unit…slowly and directionally over time toward a predetermined and scripted end-point…with a precisely orchestrated pace that is mind-boggling…yet that we take totally for granted as a result of being commonplace.

The simple arguments presented here…along with dozens more presented by other Christians in their books…are to me…objectively compelling for the inclusion of design in a worldview that utilizes the concept of the orderliness and intelligibility of the natural world…intelligible to human beings alone.

But these few simple arguments of mine are not themselves nuts-and-bolts evidences…are not objective empirical facts in favor of design…but are instead conclusions inferred from the objective empirical facts.

This should give everyone pause…who are interested in the creation/evolution debate.

And in my opinion…everyone should be interested in the creation/evolution debate…because of the singular privilege of the uniquely gifted capacity…for the orderliness and intelligibility of the exquisitely beautiful and wonderfully complex natural world being exclusively intelligible to humans…to humans alone…an innate ability that itself argues for a gifted rather than an acquired origin…above and outside of the ability of Mother Nature to produce…through a blind, accidental, and random-chance process.

Chaos is not What We Observe in the Natural World 2

Some people will object here that mass-production assembly-line bugs are not the same as accidental genetic mutations.

But is this objection valid?

Trial-runs on the assembly-line to expose problems in the assembly process that are hidden…and “accidental” genetic mutations that could coalesce to produce variant traits in plants and animals…having either positive or negative features…are two phenomenon that are precisely the same in the area of being random, difficult to foresee and anticipate ahead of time, and needing the clarity of actual existence in order to be exposed.

The operation of natural selection in-the-wild for plants and animals…post-birth…is the trial-run debugging in the living world.

But the main point here is that Darwinian macroevolution is postulating that the existence of accidental genetic mutations in the natural living world is a positive source for massively creative new biological features…as the explanation for the origin of species and the diversity of living organisms…while in the reality of human experience as prolific intelligent designers of all sorts of things…the hidden presence of “bugs” is an extremely negative source of chaos and has zero creative value on the mass-production assembly-line…or in writing computer software language code…for examples.

Observation and commonsense tell us that living animals and plants are functionally way more complex than human manufactured products…yet animals and plants are completely debugged and not at all chaotic works-in-progress that exhibit problems needing to be solved in their essential architectural body-plans or accompanying lifestyle habits.

The microevolution that Darwin observed in the finch birds on the Galapagos Islands…if extrapolated both backwards and forwards within common descent…cements the concept of steady and directional change leading to the vast diversity of life we observe today…as being the product of change analogous to the daily workplace routine of “putting-out fires”…of problem-solving after-the-fact in the reactive mode…that does not match or resemble the operations in the natural living world that parallel almost exactly the complete and finalized, intelligently designed and debugged, smooth-running efficiency of the mass-production assembly-line.

This contrasted dichotomy is what renders macroevolution to be factually unscientific.

Assuming a Positive Outcome is Naïve

The analogous explanation that complex things can fall into place on their own through small incremental steps…proposed in Richard Dawkin’s book Mount Improbable…accepting for argument’s sake that a mountain with a steeply unclimbable front face has a gradually inclined back-slope that can easily be ascended one step at a time to reach the otherwise unreachable summit…naively assumes that the stair steps going up the gradual backside of the mountain by way of random-chance generated small incremental advancements…would go up the mountain…rather than going sideways or down the mountain.

This is a leap-of-faith optimism that assumes in the worldview of naturalistic materialism that the macro-radical change…needed to support Darwinian biology…would self-orchestrate its overall trajectory in a positive direction.

What entitles us…in our experiential reality as humans and in our observation of the natural world…to assume that blind, mindless, and indifferent natural selection will go in a positive direction?

What entitles us to assume that life will spring out of non-living matter…through an unguided, random, trial-and-error process of dumb-luck…that goes by sheer chance in a positive direction?

What justifies the assumption that naturalistic materialism would ever create life from non-living matter…and set in motion the progression of ever-improving life-forms in a positive direction through the paradigm of common descent?

The assumption that the finches on the Galapagos Islands could reach the extraordinarily mature functionality…and adaptability…observed by Darwin in the early 1830’s…by extrapolating in reverse the variant traits put-out by these finches that were correctly chosen by natural selection to adapt to the varied ecological environments of these 13 islands…to then construct an entire encompassing program of common descent…is based on the naïve starting assumption that the assembly of complex things must go in the direction of positive outcomes.

This is similar to the innocent naiveté of the internet programmers for Facebook not anticipating the need to include defenses against nefarious actors misusing the “app” for evil and destructive purposes.

The idea that the incremental steps on the gradually sloping backside of Mount Improbable will through self-guidance or self-assembly naturally proceed in an upward direction to reach the summit…in my opinion…has to be a disqualifying objection…that macroevolution does not square-up with reality…not for the automobile assembly-line…not for computer software language code…not for new housing construction projects…and not for the architectural body-plans and lifestyle habits of African elephants containing hundreds of trillions of discrete living cells.

Scarcity of resources combined with survival-of-the-fittest is not a plausible explanation for the motivating force that will push self-assemblage in a positive direction…to create the vast diversity of life and the functional maturity of living organisms.

But this is a subtlety that is not easy to divide…not easy to parse.

Observing the sediment build-up at the base of river deltas…confirming Charles Lyell’s proposition for an age of the Earth much longer ago than the incorrect human interpretation of Genesis in the Bible to begin around 4,004 before Christ…is immediately verifiable once we see it.

The wording in the Bible remains precisely correct…but the biblical interpretation by Bishop Ussher is recognized as being wrong.

The Earth orbiting around the sun is totally understandable once we grasp that the Earth spins one revolution every 24 hours…that gravity holds us pinned to the Earth’s surface…and that our atmosphere of air, moisture, and clouds rotates with the Earth’s surface at a speed slightly in excess of 1,000 miles per hour…as we ourselves do.

But macroevolution is not at all obvious.  If anything, macroevolution is observationally non-existent.

This is one reason why Darwin’s proposal in 1859 comes as late as it does in the Scientific Revolution.

The more rational viewpoint that matches reality…if we are going to install a blind and mindless Mother Nature as the engineering designer sitting at the drafting table…is that life should never have occurred 3.8 billion years ago on Earth…through an unimaginably complex self-assembly as hypothesized through the atheism of naturalistic materialism.

The entire philosophical construction of combining the dumb-luck of chance with complex things falling into place on their own…in a positive direction…is a nonsensically incompatible dichotomy…of the naïve optimism…that self-direction of complex systems will go in an unguided positive direction.

This is one of the erroneous basic assumptions built into the extrapolation of micro evolution to macro evolution…that defines the motive force…the guts…of Darwin’s revolutionary hypothesis introduced in 1859 in his book The Origin of Species.